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Proquest digital dissertations free mechanical engineering project presentation ppt overview mirchi review movie spectre I'm Rob Patterson with Utah State University Extension in Carbon County today we're going to talk about soil and soil preparation for our gardens the soil and the water are the most critical components of growing a successful garden here in the eastern part of Utah we have some some especially difficult soil challenges in that we have either a high pH where we do have a high pH and in both the soil and the water or we may even have some salty soils so it's always a good idea to have the soil tested before you try to have a garden and make sure that that's going to be successful at least in that way so what we'll do first to show you how to do a soil sample you can take a soil sample and send it up to the University routine test up there is 14 dollars it's a pretty cheap option to kind of figure out what you're going to do with your soil whether or not you can actually grow a garden where you're thinking the easiest way to take a soil sample is to get a probe just a tube basically you shove down into the ground takes a core sample you pull that out you can go and get one from the Extension office in your County if if you need to but if you don't have access to a probe or you don't want to drive into the office you can use a shovel what you do is take out the divot there about a shovel depth eight or ten inches deep now that I've got that out of the way I will shave off backside of that divot okay so now that we've got the backside of that divot pulled out we want to make that a fairly even width down our Spade blade we peel that off to the side so we've got a good consistent sample down to the depth of the soil put that into a bucket do that five or six more times and then we just mix up the bucket mix up the soil in there you get a kit from the Extension Office has a bag in a box you put your soil into the bag get that pretty well filled up that's not full but get that filled up put your box together put your full bag in there you might want to let that dry out just a little bit before you put it in give it a day or so to dry and then close it off send that up to the University the instructions on where to send it and all that are right on the box you can send that up you can send your check in a separate envelope if you want to be a little bit cheaper for mailing so I tell you do a soil sample do that in about five or six places around your garden and as long as your soil is fairly consistent within your garden area you'll have a good analysis come back to you as far as what you've got that'll tell you your pH your salinity the phosphorous and the pack potassium and also the texture so soil sample is always a good first step if you're going to try to grow something now once you've got your soil sample back and you realize that you've got a soil that's good enough to grow something in especially here in southeast Utah we have some pretty tough soils to deal with and very very low organic matter so it's always a good idea to add some composted organic matter you don't want to add uncomplicated because that'll tie up your nitrogen once it's being composted though it'll break down within the soil and help create a good soil structure and so so basically you can get some horse manure cow manure not a bad idea to get that tested too if you're afraid that you might have a little bit high salts in that spread it out every year if you put a couple inches of compost on your garden that will go a long ways towards helping the soil structure and also organic matter tends to decrease the pH a little bit so you can actually lower the pH a little bit by adding a lot of organic matter so couple inches of organic matter will help so you just spread that out over your garden couple inches deep now fertilizer is also a critical part of what we're doing in gardening and so you want to make sure that you add some fertilizer to your garden because nitrogen is a very volatile element and it is used up if event it volatilizes into the air it leeches down with the water so we always assume that nitrogen is going to have to be added to our to our soil to have a good crop the rule of thumb on the the fertilizer is well once you get your soil sample back you'll know on the the phosphorus and potassium whether you need to add that or not but the rule of thumb for the nitrogen is about two pounds of nitrogen per thousand square feet per year now you have to kind of go through some math to figure that part out because on the bag it tells you how much nitrogen is in the fertilizer like if it's a 20 20 20 fertilizer it's got 20 percent nitrogen 20 percent phosphorous than 20 percent potassium so if we want to have a pound let's say 2 pounds of nitrogen 4,000 square feet well to get 2 pounds of nitrogen we have to have 10 pounds of fertilizer so the the math that you would do to come up with that is if you want to have 2 pounds of nitrogen 20% of the the bag is is nitrogen you divide 2 by 0.2 which is 20% and you come up with 10 so you have to have 10 pounds of night or the the fertilizer to get 2 pounds of nitrogen on a thousand square feet so a generally speaking your night your fertilizer will be approximately of fertilizer in a pint that'll vary depending on the density of the nitrogen ammonium sulfate is a little heavier some of these that are pulled a little bit will be a little bit lighter so kind of take that into account but about a pound to a pint will will give you however many pounds you need so if you need to tan you need to have ten pints of fertilizer over a thousand square foot garden they'll get you your two pounds of nitrogen now it's not a bad idea to spread that out over the year so you may put half of it on at the beginning of the season and then another half on as the crops are growing really good and you water that down in so you don't want to necessarily put it all down at once but you do want to get that much down at least you could go up a little bit higher depending on the crop if it's a leafy vegetable crop it could go a little higher corn takes quite a bit of fertilizer so kind of depends on the crop so if you want specifics you could go and look at some fact sheets that the Extension website there are fact sheets on all these different vegetables and they have fertilizer recommendations on there so that's what you need to do for a fertilizer and organic matter and now we'll get into working the soil up they say that gardening is good exercise and here's where part of the exercise can come in if you just have a small garden say 400 square feet of 20 by 20 size garden it's probably not worth your time to invest it or your money to invest in a a tiller of some sort it's pretty quick and easy to just kind of turn up the soil like that get your organic matter turned down you get it wet with the organic matter in there and the worms will come and help to get that good and distributed doesn't take a whole lot so you could do a 400 square foot garden in an hour or less so that's one way of turning the soil you get a little bit bigger or if you like to have your power tools you could buy a tiller you those little two cycle engine type tillers will do a good job of stirring the soil down about five six inches about as deep as they typically will go or you can get a four-stroke engine tiller that can dig it down six to eight inches so basically you're just trying to get that organic matter in there some some philosophies are that you shouldn't ever dig up the soil you shouldn't touch it with the tiller or with the Spade or or with the garden fork like this well that kind of depends because your your soil type would make a difference in that your your climate would make a big difference if you're in a fairly high rainfall area with lots of organic matter that probably would work okay but here in southeast Utah we've got this heavy clay soil and we need to add the organic matter down into it so it's just a better a better management practice to turn the soil keep in mind that when you fill it up you're going to lose some of your top soil moisture so that's one thing to kind of think about we don't have a lot of moisture around here so get it turned get your crop planted or if you wanted to turn it in the fall get that organic matter turned down in the fall and get your let the winter moisture soak down into the ground and that's a pretty good way to do it as well keep in mind with our spring winds here you can get a lot of erosion on bare soil so that's one way to turn turn your garden or you can use a tiller times you get a little bit of a clod buildup there you want to bust those down a little bit and rake your garden smooth you just way to do that is kind of use your rake like a broom you push and pull like this it kind of gouges up and down it's a little harder to keep it smooth so if you've got some clods in there you want your soil to be moist but not soggy if it's dry you'll have clods and if it's wet wet you'll have clods so this breaks up pretty good and I've got a pretty good bed there to work with do the same thing if we've tilled the ground we can smooth it out with a rake now if you've got a big area that's a lot of raking to do so if gardens a little bit bigger here's a little trick that I like to do and I'll show you my ground smoothing method that I use on my big gardens all right so what I do is I just get a four by four pallet so here we have a good seedbed we're ready to go play in our garden you no dissertation christian degree State University of New York at Cobleskill.