Different Types Research Methods Dissertation
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Different types research methods dissertation

Different types research methods dissertation capstone project thapar types of hr mis reports templates ´╗┐Hi, everbody. My name's Micah Salkind. I'm a PhD candidate in American studies here at Brown. And it's my pleasure to introduce Marc Ruppel who will then introduce and moderate the first panel this morning. Doctor Ruppel is a program officer with the National Endowment of the Humanities. He completed his PhD at the University of Maryland, College Park where he wrote a dissertation that applies social network visualization as a tool in understanding audience, media, and narratives in transmedia fiction. Marc has worked on projects ranging from the NSF funded educational alternate reality game the Arcane Gallery of Gadgetry to robot heart stories and has published several articles on transmedia practices in journals such as Convergence, The International Journal of Research Into New Media and The International Journal of Learning and Media. So here he is, Marc Ruppel. [APPLAUSE] Thank you, Micah. That was always humbling and embarrassing and flattering. Give me one second to start this. So yeah, I'm from the NEH where I am senior program officer. And as luck has it, we're celebrating our 50th anniversary this year, 50th anniversary of our founding. And it's an interesting time to kind of reflect on what NEH has done and where we're going. So one of the things that I have to say here, I'm almost obligated to stay is stay tuned. Look to NEH.gov for events locally. We're trying to really cast a wide net in the context of this anniversary and really reach everyone. There's programs that we're funding, events that we're holding that we're doing across hopefully all 50 states that will likely get a lot of the word out about a lot of the work that we've done, most of I think has some really direct bearing on what we're going to be talking about today including a conference on the future of the humanities that's coming [INAUDIBLE] So I work in the division of public programs. And just as a little bit of an overview for the panel, I want to talk a bit about what NEH has done in terms of funding model development and mobile storytelling, and then also give a little bit of a provocation about what a mobile documentary might be. Because I think one of the real things that drew me to this conference and one of the things that Marissa and I first spoke about what's the real tension between what's taking place in mobile development and the really nacion language and their dialects that are starting to form around the way that we design [INAUDIBLE] and tell stories with mobile There's different genres [INAUDIBLE] and if we really poke hard enough and if we look close enough we can start to see where they're beginning to separate. In the division of public programs, as I've said previously, we tell stories within the humanities. We are one little division in NEH that really works alongside the other divisions, especially the Office of Digital Humanities to push forward with projects that will reach a wide general public. So we fund documentary films, museum exhibits, public programming at libraries or inside museum and places like that. We fun radio projects, so American roots documentaries that would be on NPR we oftentimes have a hand in. But one of the biggest things that we want to do with our projects is make sure that our portfolio as a whole really does reach a wide swath of the US public. Increasingly, that's moving to digital. And most of my work at NEH is centered around really growing that aspect of what we do. We've traditionally always funded digital projects through our other grant line. But recently we broke it out and began a new grant line called digital projects for the public that really exclusively pushing toward funding these types of projects and engagements. So here's just a quick overview of some of our work with mobile platforms and projects to date. And this is a mix of projects that have been funded through public programs but also the Office of Digital Humanities that really does focus on that tool- and platform-end of things, where there could be multiple users for one particular platform. Whereas, in [INAUDIBLE] division, in public program, we really do focus on stories, on telling stories with the humanities through whatever tool will do that best. So we did fund Curatescape in its early days through the Office of Digital Humanities. And Mark Tebeau is here with us. And he'll be running a session later on about Curatescape. But it's a wonderful platform that's really extensible in the way that it allows for cultural heritage [INAUDIBLE] and for stories through cultural heritage to really, really be something that's reachable and doable for a lot of institutions. Someone on the panel today will be actually talking about a Curatescape project so I don't want to really steal any thunder. And I'll move on from here. But it's worth noting that Curatescape has really spun off into a lot of different project. This one is called Macleki. It's a collaboration between Maseno University and Cleveland State University. And it's essentially a mobile application or platform of Curatescape that allows you to really explore the history of Kisumu, Kenya and allows the people on the ground in Kisumu to explore their own history, to share them, create them, curate halfway through state at both local and global audiences. We also funded a project at the Adler Planetarium called Digital Historical Skies, which uses mobile technology to allow for audiences to actually impose old cartographic history over the skies at both the planetarium itself and then outdoor in whatever location they would find themselves. So it's a way of looking at old maps, watching the way that the skies have shifted, learning about the histories involved and the way that they were interpreted. Another project that we funded recently is called Mukurtu. And it's from Washington State University. And this is a platform that allows for indigenous communities to collate, share, and manage their own cultural heritage. The barrier of entry is really low so it allows for users of all different types of expertise to do this. And it also does have a real mobile dimension too in that they can begin to map and actually tag the locations of where a lot of these collections are coming from and stories have begun to form between a few of them. Dene Grigar at Washington State also developed something called Fort Vancouver Mobile. And this is a walking tour app of sorts that incorporates alternate reality game, [INAUDIBLE] so you're exploring the space with different types of interaction, looking for objects, searching in a goal-oriented type of way. And it's been a real boon, I think, to a lot of what we've done both in that place itself at Fort Vancouver, but also for the field as a whole. The National Park Service has adopted part of it with Brett Oppegaard as a model for movement going forward. This is an interesting project out of the Bay Area in San Francisco. It's KQED's Let's Get Lost platform. We funded a project for them, a module, based on the New Deal Mural and tours of the New Deal murals around that area that really does both look at them as individual objects and then also ties the story together as a whole as you move across different spaces. Another project, The Ancient Ohio Trail, out in Ohio looked at the earthwork map and actually offers audiences and visitors of that space a virtual reconstruction of the earthwork mounds as they would have existed hundreds and hundreds of years ago as they're exploring the state itself. Play the Past, which Jim Matheson, who's from Field Day, will be talking later on today will have probably more to say. This is a project that we funded through Minnesota Historical Society. It's a use of mobile apps and mobile technologies in the museum space that allows for audiences and visitors to interact with the exhibits in a way that I think is really wholly unique. For example, there's a mining exhibit that children can engage with that allows them to take on the roles of either mine foreman or workers. You organize strikes. You can deal with disasters. And then you can tell these stories in a way that I think allows them to depack that and shift it back to the classroom. Sharon Leon at George Mason University was a project director for another mobile app that we funded called Histories of the National Mall. And this has been a really popular app for a lot of cultural heritage viewers in the DC area, simply because it allows you to explore the space of the Mall and impose a different kind of historical understanding of what's taking place there in the midst of your travels. So all of these points on the map here represent photographs, video, audio clips, and text-based interpretations of what's happening on the Mall. It's again been something that we've seen some real [INAUDIBLE] with. And then finally, and I don't want to say too much about this, is Murder at Beacon Hill from Michael Epstein who's also on the panel with us today. And it's an interesting project in a lot of ways. And I'll let Michael describe the specifics of it, but in a very, very real sense I think it represents some of the future directions of what mobile development in a space can do. So these were all mobile projects in their own way, right. And these are all mobile platforms. And I think that's in some sense uncontested. But the real question that I think I want to leave us with here is what is a mobile documentary? Because the name of the session is Mobile Documentaries. And I think it's a contested term. And I like the fact that it's a contested term, that we're not really what that means. And that it's possible that the speakers yesterday, the speakers that will follow all in some sense could be considered a mobile documentary. Well I just want to push for a second on just what that might mean, offer some thoughts, and again some provocations about where we might go in defining this field and give it some framework to look at what's taken place here. Because the three panelists that are going to follow all have really wildly different approaches in some ways as to what this type of experience might mean. So it could mean podcast tours, GIS-enabled media, in other words, you walk to a space that triggers a photograph or a media artifact, location-specific interactions where it may ask you to explore a space and actually touch the side of the brick of the building, and engage in a tactful way of actually exploring what the state [INAUDIBLE] mean. But it also means something else. It means character. It means places. It means events. It means story telling. It means narrative. And it means constructing that narrative across the space that in some ways allows for a heightened engagement with that space. There's a lot going on right now about interactive documentaries. You've likely heard the term thrown around. Interactive documentaries importantly aren't always mobile. That's the point in some sense. So a project like The Hollow Documentary by Emily McMillion allows the space to come to you, to your desktop, to your PC, to your tablet. And if you haven't engaged with The Hollow, it's really fascinating. You scroll down and all these sorts of different interaction happen. Film clips play. Maps appear. And you really get a sense of the space. And she keeps updating it too and curating it. And it's essentially about [INAUDIBLE] excuse me, population from the industrial period. Fort McMoney, David Dufresne, another really popular documentary at the moment, one that meshes film and documentary types of practices with game mechanics. But again, the question that I think is worth asking with these types of examples here is what makes a mobile documentary unique? What makes it something that's worthy of us talking about here? And what makes it something that's worthy of exploring in the context of the arts, the humanities, and cultural heritage. So if the traditional documentary attempts to capture or interpret or narrativize reality, like our friend [INAUDIBLE] here, a mobile documentary attempts to capture, interpret, and narrativize reality to create experiences of that space or environment. In other words, it gets us out to the places where these happen. So rather than information about a space, where you go somewhere and can access information, it doesn't have that story element. Mobile documentaries imbues that location with tactile sense of the hidden stories that are possible. Maybe. And this works with something that I've called, really loosely, spacial contingency, the ability for a story to take you into a place and show you those pivot points where something happened, history, events, places where people and their lives were made. So where are we going with this? I just want to offer a couple of quick trends that I see from our point of view in terms of what we're getting. And while I can't speak specifically about proposal, it's one of the things that make my job and these sorts of jobs difficult, we can't talk about either proposals that are pending or proposals that were submitted and weren't funded. What I will talk about are high-level trends that we see in terms of the projects that we get at mobile. So there's an awful lot going on in terms of mobile development right now. And it pulls from multiple fields from film, to radio to museums, historic sites, digital experiential design. And they're all working sometimes in tandem and sometimes separately. So there's a whole of media production that's taking place here that I think's really fascinating to look at because everyone is turning to these tools in some ways. And they're all bringing their own expertise and their own approaches to what it takes to development a mobile project. We're also seeing a real distinction between linear and non-linear pathways. And one of the interesting things about this, and this is no surprise because this how social media works, is that with linear pathways, we're seeing a real restriction of what's possible with the archive, with archival content, where photographs, film clips, audio clips, things like that aren't as rampant. And in non-linear paths what we're seeing is people often building from archival content and allowing for that open to really take place. So this is in some ways representative of what I see as a kind of third stage of digital media development. So first, we realized that we could digitize something. Second, we slapped a usable interface on top of it and called it public. And now we're dealing with the trickiest part of the test, telling stories from all these collections of archives, figuring out ways narrativize them in a way that really makes it personal, makes sense to audiences. And this is taking place in the usual places too. We see a lot of people struggling with this movement from universities to museums to historic sites, but also interestingly public broadcast. So there's a whole slew of public broadcasters out there across the US who realized they're now sitting on these massive archives of media objects. And they want to do something with them. And a lot of them are turning to mobile media and mobile experience as a way to help them both understand what's in their collection and also help the public engage with it more deeply. So again this is a distinction between archives and artifacts tagged with GIS data and projects using this data for mobile engagements. We're not just going somewhere and looking at something. We're being given a way to do this. Interesting thing too, and this is kind of a sidebar, is what I'm really seeing through a lot of these projects is a return to sound as a way of designing. And some of the projects today will really touch on that. So this isn't an NEH project. This also isn't a mobile project. But it's one that I think's really representative of where the field is likely shifting. And this is Emily Thompson's The Roaring Twenties, the website that essentially mapped the sounds of the 1920s New York City and allows you to explore it. There's film clips involved. There's audio clips. And one of the news reels, for example, allows you to take a walk up a street filled with music shops that were all blaring different records, different instruments out of there windows, out of their space and attempt to compete with each other and out do each other. So it gives you a sense of exploring the space through very, very sensory means. And it's not hard to think about how that could actually be translated on the streets of New York, right. It wouldn't be that much of a leap to translate this to mobile. Also wouldn't be that much of a leap to take something like say the National Mall, which is an older project by this band actually called Bluebrain, who designed the National Mall in a completely different way than what took place with our National Mall app that I mentioned earlier. They designed it through sound. They made it a walkable record where as you move through the space of the Mall, you wind up triggering different sound clips. And doing so completes this piece of music and completes an experience that really brings to deeply in touch in a lot of ways with some of the objects and monuments present on the Mall. Again, it's not hard to figure out how we might extend these [INAUDIBLE] And this isn't a project itself, it's just a hypothetical. It wouldn't be hard to imagine, for example, a mobile app that uses sound to capture and recreate some of the experiences of the MLK march on Washington, where for example, you might be someone who showed up on a bus and are asked to find someone in your church or from your [INAUDIBLE] network, for example, just by listening for a choir, listening for a hymnal being sung in the background and moving towards that sound. So we're asked to see. We're asked to hear. We're asked to feel, to touch, to smell sometimes through mobile projects. And we're asked to interpret it here. And that's what I really think these panelists will offer today, different ways of looking at those types of dynamics and those types of interpretations. Anyone know what this is? This is-- go ahead. It's the Alamo, no? No, it's not the Alamo. This is the Piazza of the Knights of Malta in Rome. Probably couldn't be further off. [LAUGHTER] And this is a line of people who wait for hours to do this-- to look through a keyhole. And they look out at Saint Peter's dome and they look through this particular doorway as a way of experiencing it in a way that's restricted but yet in some sense highly, highly engaging. I use this example always when I teach designed for both mobile and for narrative architectures, things like that and also when I'm working on projects with different types of folks as a way of kind of conceiving of what we do here, of what everyone on this panel does, of what mobile development really does at its best. It's creating a perspective that oftentimes is restrictive. We're all restricting what we're dealing with here when we talk about some of these stories and collections we're working with. But oftentimes it's more productive to look through the keyhole than to open the door. So I'm going to leave it at that. I'll introduce our speakers now or somebody else will. And feel free to poke holes at anything I said later on in the discussion. But I'll step down now. And we'll get to the good people on point. [APPLAUSE] Hello, everyone. Good morning, and thank you Marc for that wonderful introduction to what promises to be a really exciting panel. So my name is Reya Sehgal, and amongst many other things, I am a master student in public humanities. And I'm very excited to introduce Michael Epstein today. I was really drawn to Michael's work because my previous student life was very focused on how to read cities through different media. And Michael's work uses cinematic interventions and urban spaces to approach storytelling through an interactive means. So Michael might be best described as a transmedia director covering his work in radio, film, and mobile app development. In 2006 Michael founded Walking Cinema, an interactive storytelling studio through which he has produced material focusing on cities across the country. His walking cinema Murder on Beacon Hill project that you saw earlier with the first iPhone app to win an award at a major film festival. He is now working on Museum of the Hidden City, which I'm very excited about. He calls it a live documentary investigating the affordable housing system in my hometown of San Francisco. So I am pleased to welcome to the stage Michael Epstein. [APPLAUSE] Hey, everyone. Is this part of the experience? Yes. All right. Thanks, Reya. That was a great intro. I hope that I can do you proud in my mobile documentary discussion, especially about San Francisco. What I wanted to start talking about was how I got into this rabbit hole-- which sounds [INAUDIBLE] this rabbit hole of mobile documentaries. About 10 years ago as a grad student, I got very interested in some of the drawbacks of the new media and when a new media appears. And I was thinking a lot about mobile about how mobile media is making us more and more distracted in some ways taking us out of reality. And I looked back and I realized like Plato was also really concerned about new media. He was worried about this stuff called handwriting that he claimed kind of orphaned words. And he says that when speeches have been once written down, they're tumbled about anywhere among those who may or may not understand them. And know not to whom they should reply to who not and if they are maltreated or abused, they have no parent to protect them. And they cannot protect or defend themselves. And so I think poor Plato was also seeing a problem with the propagation of our expressive media. And that got me thinking that maybe there is something that new media can learn from old. And I began to think, well, this is back in 2003 I started thinking about well maybe there is a way to make mobile a lot more connected to the world around us, that there's a more sensitive way to start approaching developing mobile media. And this is actually pre-iPhone. This isn't even a phone. This is what you might have called a palm pilot or a PDA. And at MIT, where I was at grad school, they developed a platform that was incredibly simple. It had GPS hooked into it, the internet. And you could take any map and on that map create hot spots where when you got to that hot spot you could pull up text, audio, or video. And I got this great idea that I would take a film that was set in a specific neighborhood in Boston. And I would just cut it up into these little pieces and people would walk around and they'd get this wonderful, double experience of having both the film and the place all at once. And so I built this small platform with four short episodes from the film. And I tested it on students and it was a complete failure. And what I began to realize is that cinema is really finely crafted to do what's sort of happening right now, to lock you into a seat, to put you into a room to in some ways shut you off from your surroundings to have a direct experience with the screen. And so the problem, as you can imagine, when I did this was that they lose pacing even between point A and B, you lose that storytelling rhythm. People jumped out and jumped back in. I realized to that people didn't like standing looking at a device like this for even more than a minute in the middle of a beautiful neighborhood. They wanted to interact with their surroundings. And the film just wasn't made for that. And then second, there's that issue of linearity that Marc was talking about, that the chronology gets all screwed up if people start jumping from place to place to place. Films aren't made for that. But I realized I was at kind of the forefront of what could be a really interesting challenge. And so what I began to think about more and more was that sort of isolation of cinema. And what I want to talk about today is really what I would say striking a balance, trying to figure out how we can, if you want to use the word disrupt, cinematic and documentary storytelling by putting it in real places in a way that makes you much more active with the media, like Marc was saying more tactile, more there. You can imagine history, historical narratives experienced in a place where they haven't been definitely heightened the experience. Also the social issues, I'll talk about that. I think this play space storytelling will make you much more sympathetic to issues or more convinced of certain viewpoints. But at the same time, we don't want to lose the wonderful narrative progress that cinema's made over the last century, the incredible natural habits that they've built in us, for us to be able to sit for two hours and just be engrossed in a story. And so really I'm going to be talking today about the marriage of the two in three projects. And the first one is the Murder on Beacon Hill project in 2009. And it was funded by a digital humanities start-up grant but its roots actually go back to 1990 when Simon Schama wrote a book called Dead Certainties. And he was really interested in how we do history and how we can small fictions to connect parts of archival history that don't necessarily mesh so well. There was a film made by this process in 2003 called Murder at Harvard. And then what I wanted to do in the, in mobile was really not replicate the film or the book but really extend a component of the story, which was about the relationship of two men that were involved in an unsolved crime 150 years ago. Basically one morning about a week after the disappearance of one of the wealthiest men in Boston, his body parts were discovered at the bottom of a Harvard professors privy on the Harvard Medical School campus. And that set off a sort of OJ Simpson-like trial that lasted for months to figure out if this Harvard professor was guilty or not of killing the man. And what I was really interested was in the relationship between these two characters that neither the book or the film could fully explore. It merely touched upon it. So again, this was funded by a digital humanities start-up grant, but I also know that the American experience film that it was built on also received NEH funding. So this was a real NEH baby in a lot of ways. I'm just going to play a clip. Basically the way that the project worked is you had on your phone a map that you followed, an old map, and it had hot spots. And when you got to hot spots there was videos that you would play that sort of got you into those places. So I'll just show you the first video that you get, which starts on Mass General's campus in Boston. And we might need to adjust the sound a bit if it's low. [VIDEO PLAYBACK] -In the center of the Massachusetts General Hospital in this old granite building is a little amphitheater. They call it the Ether Dome. Hold up this video and go inside with me. This is where surgery lost its main ingredient pain. In 1846, when a patient awoke here from a procedure removing a throat tumor and couldn't recall any pain, Boston's men of medicine got giddy with human possibilities. -Yes. Now now, take it easy. Yes, that's it. -Let's step down a few stairs from the Ether Dome and you see an early photograph showing this building and the Harvard Medical College next to it. See those windows on the first floor? That's professor Webster's laboratory. And in 1849, just three years after the medical miracle of ether, a gruesome discovery was made in the mud flats under Webster's lab. This revelation was also talked about around the world, but more as a savage stain on the intellectual fabric of Boston. The building is gone. But not all of it. Some still remains very close to where you're standing now. [END PLAYBACK] So when you saw the end there as actually they still have the pilings of the building where the professor worked and basically around where the body was found or parts of the body. And I was blown away at how just these little fragments heightened the story so much for people, just to see pieces of living proof of what happened in the midst of this story. It really focuses attention and makes people feel like there's part of a sort of privileged secret that's happening in the world around them. The other thing that we found is that this type of use of archival and historical footage activates all types of audiences. I think one of the biggest compliments we got was from a young woman who said she wanted to do the tour again but with her parents. And I was like, many things do 20-year-olds want to ever do with their parents. So I thought that might be a small breakthrough there. But the other part with artifacts is that we got the idea that OK, you're going to go around to about seven places during this tour on about a one-mile path. And maybe we should just have small artifacts that we've kind of staged and recreated and put there. And what we got very interested in is that right around the time of the murder, the game of life, the board game of life with the little spinney wheel was just coming out and was a morality board game that was actually avoid going to Hell and see if you could get to Heaven through this checkerboard design. And so we basically recreated the game board but put instead of just normal player pegs, we had characters from the story. We're all involved in a sort of morality tale on this game board. And we stashed it with a concierge at a hotel that at one time was the jail where Webster was held for a little while. So the place ties into this story. But people loved this. The idea that they could go to the concierge and say, oh could I play the parking game? And he'd give you this thing. Many people were like in love with this. So this was kind of one of the big learnings that we had is that when you do a digital project especially in real space installation is going to become very, very important. Also we did figure out, I mean you could hear from the music and the set up that you can also create narrative tension, that narrative tension does work in what I'm calling terratives or terrestrial narratives. You could still create narrative tension. And then we had this dual format where when you were stopped at these places you got video but in between the stops maybe for the three-to-five-minute walks you had audio that was kind of musical and gave you more background about the story. And so that shift between audio and video also seemed to work well. The biggest issue with it was that it was completely, I wouldn't say completely, but there was no real ties between the film and the mobile. They slightly referenced each other, but it wasn't like you'd watch the film because the film was made six years earlier. And you'd be, oh, now I'm going to do the mobile. And sort of visa versa, the mobile kind of hints at moments of the film but it didn't feel like you were going to jump up and go see the film. And then the audience, you know you go and you do stuff and you find things. But it wasn't like the audience really contributed to the story. They were still, in some ways, very passive. There wasn't really a role for them especially on the platform itself. And then we did find that-- the experience was about an hour-- but after 30 minutes people were getting tired. There was exhaustion to it. I just think with these things you can always overestimate how much energy people have for it. So I was thinking maybe we need to look at a shorter form than an hour at least as an option for people. Those issues began to resolve somewhat in a project that we did a couple years ago and then just updated this year. It's called Posts from Gloucester. It's a play on the word sending a post in a postcard but also physical posts that you could find around Gloucester. And that was one of the brilliant bases of this project is that it was a digital media project that was done in tandem with a large-scale place-making project. Basically the city of Gloucester got over a million dollars of funding to create a harborwalk. And so along this harborwalk, as you can see, there was quite a bit of signage. But built into that signage were clues about, not clues, but basically signs that you could scan to get to this walking cinema experience. And so we had a stake in the ground, literally we had posts that we could use to tell the story. And so I thought, you know, wow that's very official. And that's going to create a lot more participation. And I'll get back to that in a second about how it worked. But what we also really cranked up in this one was the idea of the installations, the idea that you could physically experience the place. And I'll just show you briefly about how that played out. And again, we might need to adjust the volume as I play this. And let's see. Yes, we have it. So this is the interface for the project. And very similar to Murder on Beacon Hill, you get a map with a walking path. If you're on it, it will show you your GPS positions. So you could pretty easily walk and follow it. And it's much shorter form. There's two 15-minute experiences along this path. And the second experience deals with a story of Howard Blackburn. Basically, it's a man who is kind of like a folk hero of the town. And I'll just show you how it plays out. As you walk, you get to these specific points. And this second episode in that Howard Blackburn story is called Holding Oars. And they basically had you just press it. And then the story should start up. And again, we might need to adjust the volume. [VIDEO PLAYBACK] -OK. You should be next to the door now. Go ahead. Get inside and have a seat up front. Feel free to set your phone in the little box at the front of the dory. You can watch the video while you row. For centuries, Gloucester fishermen fished from these little boats. The dories were lowered into the water. And in teams of two, the fishermen rowed away from the ship. They knew that once they left the mother ship, anything could happen. -Howard Blackburn was out in a grand banks. He was in this 16-foot dory with Tom Welsch. They're out and looking. The storm blows up. The temperature is getting colder and colder. And they spent the night. They couldn't make it back to the mother vessel. And in the morning, it was gone. Howard Blackburn, he started to row. And the boat, it was taking water on. And they had to take turns bailing. And Howard took his wool mitts off and set them down in the water. And when Tom Welsch went to bail, the first thing he bailed out was those mitts. Tom looked up and said, Howard, your hands. They're freezing up. And Howard looked down and they were. And he did the only thing he could, he froze his fingers on the oars [INAUDIBLE] so he could still row. -Go ahead. Lock your hands on the oars and imagine rowing and rowing with hands stuck to the oars. You can almost feel that numbness in your face, your fingers. Now hold that feeling and take a postcard. Whoever takes the picture, you should step back from the boat. And you should hold those oars like they're your only hope for survival. It'll be like an SOS card from the boat. And you'll relive how numb Blackburn must have been physically and mentally. [END PLAYBACK] So this is where we really tried to bring the audience, the participants into the story. And you can literally make a postcard. And I'll just-- do you mind volunteering for a second? Sure. OK. Now if you could just stand up. And you have to grimace. [INAUDIBLE] a little bit more in the light. Thank you. And I just need a grimace of sorts. Oh, good. [LAUGHTER] And so yeah. And so now you have a postcard. You're not in a boat. So it doesn't get the full effect. But basically it's the kind of problem that did reality, augmented reality experience became a new addition to what, a new addition to how we were doing our storytelling. What I liked about it in the cinematic sense of what we're doing is that it broke up in a sense the, It broke up in a sense the sort of locking you into your phone for an hour. That you actually had to like take a step back. Take a picture. Grimace. And you'll see people really be enjoying these mobile documentaries. But if you look at their faces, a lot of times they look like they're dead. They just kind of like, [INAUDIBLE] And I'm pretty sure, oh it looked like you hated it. You were bored. No, no I loved it. But expressively it's very hard for people to get involved. So this was a chance for people to physically experience the place. And I've also say this stretched the age group out for this story. That we could go. And we were testing it with as young as five-year-olds. And they were enjoying both the stories and the photo [INAUDIBLE]. And so again that is one of the uber goals of what we're trying to do is give an experience that stretches across generations and has different value for each. This won the Gold MUSE award in 2013. And so I think these kind of projects are beginning to get recognized. And then it also these photos could be shared online. We're beginning to see some of them appear on Facebook. And so I'll give you the link so you can check out that stream. But it's another way for us to begin to activate social media channels and more personalization of the tours. So yes, bigger installation seemed to be working. This episodic approach too seemed to work, sort of making it shorter. So if you only wanted to spend say 15 minutes and just do one of the stories rather than both of them, it kind of worked out. And this photo taking, this kind of idea of a media break also seemed to work. The thing that was felt a little bit uncomfortable about this one was that it felt more anecdotal. It didn't have a strong arm like it would if you sat in the theater for two hours and really got engrossed. It was more sort of this 10 to 15 minutes with Howard Blackburn. He has a smaller part and another story about the town's Italian traditions. And you move on. Also with all of these projects, your audience size is very limited unless you're doing something in Times Square where you get 5 million visitors a year. The physical experience of the place limits your audience size, especially in a city like Gloucester. I think we in a sense this was the idea of building this harborwalk was an incredibly contentious idea. Gloucester still prides itself as a working, blue-collar town. And in a way, this project makes them a little bit more like they're much more touristy neighbor, Manchester by the sea. And there was actually people who we interviewed were kind of on the edge about this kind of touristic intervention. And so I feel like some of these historical narratives can ignore some of the facts on the ground that make, I think that create cinematic interest. And so, that leads me to the final project that I want to talk about. And with this one, I really wanted to try to create something longer form but there also had an interest in current issues in San Francisco as Nina eluded to. And basically-- if you're aware that San Francisco is turning into the most expensive housing market in the country. I think the average price of a one-bedroom apartment to rent is $3,500. And so the sort of face of that story is that oh, the whole city is being gentrified. And I began to look into it. And the interesting thing that I found is that, especially in neighborhoods towards the center of the city SoMa, where Nina's from, the market, the tenderloin, many of those buildings are actually owned and operated by the nonprofits and by cities. And those are locked in. There's also laws and structural limitations that prevent many of those building from ever becoming high-end housing. And so one local writer, Gary Kamiya says that in the end, the scenario is what he called the involved stakeholder scenario posits that the neighborhood actually stabilizes into a functioning crazy quilt, a block-to-block, building-to-building patchwork of wealth and poverty, blacks and whites, Asians and Latinos, SROs, those are single-room occupancy, hotel rooms next to renovated apartments, supportive housing beside new condos. And I really became interested in in exploring what does this match up mash up of rich and poor look like sociologically? And so I began to look for places where wealth and poverty are living right next to each other. And I discovered this is really interesting mechanism. And I'm just going to play a bit of this. And try to figure out what you're looking at. [VIDEO PLAYBACK] -468 is 200865. 469 is 201162. [END PLAYBACK] Does anybody know what this is? Any ideas? [CHATTER] What is it? Charter school route? No, not for schools. Yes, housing lottery. It's a housing lottery at the public library. And so this mash up of wealth and poverty is actually engineered into the city, that every new residential building that has more than 10 units has to create at least 12% affordable units. And most of those affordable units go to people who are making less than 50% of the average median income. In San Francisco is a really narrow gap between like say $30 to $35,000 a year for a family of two. And so what's actually happening is that the new buildings that are being built, which for all intensive purposes are luxury housing, are actually programmed with a certain percentage of people who are making much less than the people who can afford the market-rate units. And one of those buildings is called NEMA. It's kind of like SoHo, but it's a made up I guess acronym for a neighborhood that doesn't exist yet called New Market. At least I'm taking a neighborhood that has a name. It's called South of Market, SoMa, but they're calling it NEMA, new market. And they're building these what they call next gen luxury rentals. And what they want to build is what they call an inspired community. But 12% of that inspired community are going to be people who are from the housing lottery. And so I became very interested in meeting, going into this particular building and seeing if in that building we could kind of get a sense of the society, in a sense, that may become the future of San Francisco. And in particular, I met one family called the Ramirez family. And they had incredible struggle to get into their apartment because they did meet the income requirements but they had, their credit score was like 20 points shy of what the limit should be. So they went through this crazy, two-month, really it was just like a hustle to try to make that credit score go up. And they did finally get into the building. And when they got into the building, I'm just going to play an episode of the film. Sorry. [VIDEO PLAYBACK] [SPANISH] [END PLAYBACK] [VIDEO PLAYBACK] [SPEAKING SPANISH] [END PLAYBACK] So this last is actually very important. It's the perspective that we decided to tell the story from. This is actually one of those observational telescopes that's at the top of Twin Peaks and it's looking out into the fog. The fog, of course, becomes a metaphor for how we're dealing with our housing crisis in San Francisco. But what's interesting about this story and the dilemma that Yesenia and her family find herself in is that there are many historical factors that went into both creating the inclusionary housing program and of course what she's talking about, which is separate but equal access. That has a whole new twist in the situation where we're imagining maybe separate is better for families rather than buildings that are more engineered for single people. Right. And so she left that question of [INAUDIBLE]. So what happened to me, and Dina alluded to this, is that I had this footage of her story. And it was told all from her perspective. And so I went to gather other perspectives on what was happening. And I got fascinating, not contradictions, but very different viewpoints on this woman in particular and in general about the problems with inclusionary housing. The problem was that many people I talked to refused to go on camera. I was left in a very strange storytelling dilemma where you've got background information but you can't get anybody to say it on film. What I ended up doing is what's called a live documentary where it's basically a mash up of Yesenia telling her story in short episodes, two to three minutes and mix in with live scenes where we're recreating onstage in front of the film different viewpoints. But from the police that almost arrested them for sleeping in their car and could have taken away their kids to the shelter where they stayed before they got into the NEMA building to the developers themselves. So these scenes are acted out to provide counter points to what Yesenia is saying as she tells her story. But one of the most important characters is the guy who's sort of investigating the story himself. He's a side character. He doesn't take up that much time. We call him Professor P. But he has developed a sort of innovation, a technological innovation for these viewers. And he calls this innovation the Sutroscope, named after Sutro Tower. And so basically we have these fictional elements built into the film and the idea of the Sutroscope is that it can sort of precisely look into the landscape and let you see some of the historical and sociological factors behind what's being built and this question inclusionary housing. And he explains all the gadgets and how it works, but again, in the show that lasts about an hour, he's a fairly minor character. The show itself has been performed a couple of times in the last month in San Francisco. We've had sellout crowds. We've also had amazing Q&A. This is a film that sparks like an hour Q&A where nobody wants to leave the room. I've been pretty impressed with that. But really our next step is to figure out, OK, now that we've got a more solid story, in a sense, that's very landscape based, how are we going to create the mobile project? And this is still unformed but we have done some experiments. And I would say that one thing that we do know is that this character, P, is going to be, in a sense, sort of the guy. That he's going to take this technology that he's created for viewers at the top of Twin Peaks and he's going to put them on your mobile device and let you look in deeper to this issue of equitable housing. One of the things that was incredibly important in how the mid-market neighborhood where Yesenia lives and how it got down trodden in the '70s was the 15-year construction of the subway system, which tore up the streets and literally like evacuated most the businesses that were along the blocks where she lives. And a look back into that history, we're experimenting with both a mobile guide but installations a little bit like this that are called, it's called Peephole Cinema. And are we out of time? Yeah. OK. I won't share this. But I'll say that's one of the things that we're considering doing. And that there will be a series of these installations that are unlocked using codes that you get from the app. And will be the basis of the mobile project that's in development now. So basically we've learned three things, that installation plus anchor media is really important. And with anchor media I mean that longer documentary. And then history applied to current issues, this has a lot tension to it than any other product that I've done. And also the idea that it is a story that by its nature is grounded in the landscape. I'd say the last thing that we're really still thinking about is audience size. Will there be large audiences for this? And I think there's a few things to keep an eye on not just walking cinemas work but detour.com is a platform for walkable media that's based in San Francisco but is quickly expanding internationally. I think they might build a critical mass of audience for this. Disney and their theme park is also doing a lot to do rich cinematic storytelling on mobile. And then finally, students. I'm teaching a course now that is all about mobile narrative at the California College of Arts. And I do think that academics are beginning to really warm up to this platform. And these people are really going to be I think the future of this platform. And they're fascinated with it. They really like being outside and they love the idea that digital can be a sort of way to experience outdoors. Here's various links to things I've talked about it. And if you want, you could share this presentation and people can follow these links on their own. Thank you. [APPLAUSE] Hi, everyone. My name's Maggie Unverzagt Goddard. And I'm a PhD candidate here at Brown. I'm excited to introduce our next speaker, Shannon Carrol, an award-winning artist, visual storyteller, and creative entrepreneur based in Brooklyn. She's the creative director of Vivid Story, a studio that works with social enterprises, non-profits, and brands that tell compelling stories that build authentic connections and inspire action. She also spearheaded Southside Stories, a site-specific audio walk featuring the residents of Williamsburg's Southside community that seeks to reinvigorate a sense of discovery, wonder, and responsibility and participant's relationship with the city. Please welcome Shannon Carroll. [APPLAUSE] Hello, everyone. I am so excited to be here today and to share this project with you. Thank you so much to Marissa for putting in such hard work and organizing this entire conference and everyone else at Brown. [APPLAUSE] So just a little bit more about me, I am primarily see myself as an artist. And my background really expands introdisciplinary fine art, documentary film making, and community engagement. I've also created site-specific installations that really look at the construction of space and how people engage with those spaces and then also the mediation of spaces such as the Southside Stories's audio walk. So today my presentation will be completely focused on Southside Stories. And it's an audio walk into the Southside Williamsburg Brooklyn. First I'll tell you a bit about the project. And then I'm going to take you behind the scenes. So to help situate ourselves, here is a map of New York City. And of course New York City is a massive place as we all know. There's over 8 and 1/2 million people who live there. I have Brooklyn highlighted in blue. Williamsbury, the Southside of Williamsburg is that blue target right there. Walking the streets of the Southside of Williamsburg one bears witness to the neighborhood's sometimes violent past and struggles but also to the strong sense of community and culture pride that emerges. Southside Stories is an audio walk into this Southside that features [INAUDIBLE] with the residents from the community. Stories from the neighborhood's recent history has a predominantly Latino neighborhood are juxtaposed to a landscape that's rapidly undergoing transformation and it's anonymous with hipster culture. The experience encourages a reinvigorated sense of discovery and responsibility and participant's relationship with the city. Through the walk's 75-minute route, participates unravel the stories, people, and places. These stories from residents are peppered with instructions for the audience members to actually take off their headphones, go into businesses, and interact with locals. The participants are given permission to into places they may not normally. And the walk uses binaural audio that was recorded from throughout the neighborhood to create an immersive landscape that transforms the participant's sense of time and place. And binaural audio is a method of recording that uses two microphones that are arranged with the intention of creating a 3D sensation of actually being in a place. We actually just used these $90 binaural audio recorders that we just plugged in and almost used like headphones. You just walked through the space and it records as you're actually there. To participate, you just download the free audio track from our website, Southsidewalk.com. Print out the map and then go to the walk starting point in Williamsburg. The walk starts on Bedford Ave. across the street from the L train subway entrance. Along the walk you'll encounter a rich array of stories with the perspective of community gardeners, the owner of a closing bakery, a long-time realtor and landlord, Hasidic swimmers, the caretaker of an abandoned lot, a former drug lord, the founder of a rehabilitation center, and much, much more. I think there was over 20 different voices that we collected to have stories within the walk. And these are people who are both witnesses to and active agents in the profound changes of the neighborhood that have happened over the past 30 years. For example, Robert, the Dominican landlord, he both financially benefited from the increased real estate interests in the neighborhood but simultaneously has painfully witnessed the displacement of his Dominican and Puerto Rican community. He's a two-and-a-half-minute slide show just to get a little taste of some of the stories. [VIDEO PLAYBACK] -I realized that the only time you affect change is the change that's the closest to you that you can make in your community. [MUSIC PLAYING] --[INAUDIBLE] anybody can come in and jump in and join in. And she's always got a smile on her face. She's a beautiful person, bonita. She's a beautiful person. She feed, like I said, anybody that walk in here. [INAUDIBLE] for 50 years. This is the same. But the neighborhood have changed a lot. -This is our neighborhood. This is where we go out. People look at us and they look at us, sometimes they look at you and I feel like a foreigner. And they don't realize that if it wasn't for the Spanish people that stood here, this wouldn't be a neighborhood. Because we stood here when it got bad. OK. We're just Williamsburg people. We're from here. This is our neighborhood. -I remember walking down [INAUDIBLE] and I walked down the block and then come back up. And then realizing that there's not one Spanish person that I saw when I was walking. There's not one. -You know, I wish I had somebody to tell me, Andy, you know that block you sell with all those abandoned buildings of little three-family houses? They were only going for $15,000 back then. Today they're worth a million dollars. I could have bought the whole block! [MUSIC PLAYING] [END PLAYBACK] The walk really deals with generational memory. And one thing that I was so fascinated about with this particular neighborhood is that within in the past 30 years within the generation how drastic it had changed. And that connection of identity to place and how one create to know their own personal history, how we know when the places change how do you define yourself? And how do you define your relationship to the neighborhood. The walk ends at the final remaining Puerto Rican social club in Williamsburg, which there used to be many of. And this one is very special [INAUDIBLE]. Here's a one-minute trailer that one of my fellow collaborators made about the club. The movie itself is 20 minutes long, but this is just the one-minute trailer. [VIDEO PLAYBACK] [MUSIC PLAYING] -Dancing. [INAUDIBLE] you eat, you drink, you dance. That's just what Caribbean is. -One of the most iconic clubs that will never, ever be repeated. [MUSIC PLAYING] -And it's like family, you know. This is home for everybody. -And everybody knows her. I would take a bullet for her. [SPEAKING SPANISH] [MUSIC PLAYING] [END PLAYBACK] So the experience reveals how residents are preserving a sense of identity, community, and connection to home amid exponentially rising rents and a landscape that's rapidly undergoing transformation. The walk opens a space for conversations between new combers and long-term residents about the neighborhood's past, present, and future. Participants get an opportunity to see the neighborhood from a different perspective, walk in the shoes of another person, and ultimately empathize with their experiences. So now I'll tell you a bit about how I made the project. And then I also am going to give some recommendations for those of you who are interested in creating powerful location-based experiences and potentially walking tours, audio-based walking tours. In the fall of 2012, our team had worked on collaborative fellowships at UnionDocs, which is a center for documentary art in Williamsburg. As a part of a group of 12 fellows, we were assigned with creating works for UnionDocs multi-year project, Living Los Sures. The project uses the 1984 feature-length film, Los Sures, directed by Diego Echeverria as a starting part for investigations into the neighborhood of South Williamsburg. Here's a one-minute promo video about the larger Living Los Sures project that this audio walk was a part of. [VIDEO PLAYBACK] -Across the East River from Manhattan lies a small community of some 20,000 Hispanic people closer than Puerto Rican. It is the poorest section of New York City. This is a portrait of that neighborhood. -They call this the Southside because [INAUDIBLE] Spanish. So they call it in Spanish [SPEAKING SPANISH] are tough it's because [SPANISH] has arrived [INAUDIBLE] [END PLAYBACK] This project has encompassed over I think 100 collaborators at this point. And it has taken up the span of five years. We actually just premiered it in partial at the New York film festival Convergence section, which actually is taking place this weekend last year. And yeah, it also has different interactive web-based documentary components, over 50 short documentaries that have been made and that including this [INAUDIBLE]. And I really joined UnionDocs because I felt they recognized the history of the cinematic documentary tradition, while also supporting work that expands the definition of what a documentary can be. And I also just really felt looking at my own personal life with a childhood that was spent outdoors to somehow being cloistered in front of the screens and just feeling this almost despair of am I just going to sit in front of the screen the rest of my life and really wanting to get out into the neighborhood and to these places and getting people engage with these conversations that we're talking about within the cinema. So here's just one minute about more about UnionDocs project. [VIDEO PLAYBACK] -UnionDocs is a center for documentary art that brings together a diverse community of artists, journalists, and critical thinkers on a search for urgent expressions of the human experience, practical perspectives on the world today, and compelling visions for the future. -Each year UnionDocs selects 12 talented fellows from a competitive pool of international applicants to take part in a program we call The UnionDocs Collaborative Studio. -Fellows attend project master classes and seminars with some of the most exciting voices in the documentary field and receive many benefits towards their professional development. For 10 months from September through June, they commit about 20 hours per week to the program. -They produce powerful, thought-provoking nonfiction media. -UnionDocs guides the process, selects the theme for this work, and points the energy of the group towards an important mission. [END PLAYBACK] So with the prompt of creating short projects about the Southside of Williamsburg, my team set out to create an audio walk that featured stories from the neighborhood's long-term residents. We looked at other New York-based audio walking tours like Passing Stranger of the East Village Poetry Walk by [INAUDIBLE], Her Long Black Hair by Janet Cardiff, and Soundwalk Hasidic Williamsburg by the company Soundwalk. And we looked at these different projects and really analyzed what we felt was successful about them and unsuccessful. And if you're not familiar with Janet Cardiff's work, she's created audio walking tours all across the globe. And she's just a really amazing audio artist who really looks at how to use sound to activate places and the stories behind those places. Looking at these different audio walks like with The East Village Poetry Walk, we really loved the use, it really looks at the history of the different writers and poets who started their career [INAUDIBLE] East Village of New York. But it was very long. It was an hour and a half. And also felt like it was successful in the way that it used navigation through these very busy streets and really focusing on using, having the navigation have a sense of poetry to it and a sense of suspense. So how do you get the person to continue to walk to the next location and how that's part of the narrative art. We loved Her Long Black Hair because just going through Central Park it was this amazing experience. I highly recommend doing it if you find yourself in Central Park soon. It was also made in 2004. And we did it just a year or two ago and it still resonated so deeply. But we felt like it was a bit meandering in a way that there was a lot of connections and specific references to where you were standing but oftentimes the narrator would go off all these tangents. And you become somewhat disconnected from the space that you were actually in. And then we loved the Hasidic Williamsburg soundwalk because for those who are not part of the Hasidic community it's pretty, it's very hard to access. It actually took you to these places where you felt like you shouldn't be. And it gave you direct encouragement or permission to actually go into these spaces that you otherwise would have no direct reason to. We were really motivated to take documentary out of the cinema and onto the streets and in public spaces. We took an ethnographic approach and spend a lot of time simply observing the streets, talking and interviewing residents, deeply hanging out. Then we plotted the most compelling route and narrative art through the neighborhood, wrote the narration, recorded the binaural audio soundscapes, tested it many times, and edited together the final 35-minute audio track. In the process we learned a lot about creating powerful location-based media and designing for a paved road. The audio stories themselves we edited to be between one to three minutes each. And we did it because we really wanted to keep participants moving and to not be standing in one place for too long. And the way that we did our interviewing we took a lot of notes from This American Life. Specifically we would interview the historic, the people whose stories that we had in the walk. We would interview them on location. And we would ask them to describe the events step-by-step to get them to truly show the story and not tell it. We would ask them to describe what they were seeing and feeling and smelling and experiencing at each location to provoke answers that were visual and then have them call out specific references, details that were up and down, not just at eye level. And then have them repeat the stories until they made the visual references clear. And then after they [INAUDIBLE] story, asked a question that provoked reflection. And the stories themselves were really about these powerful moments that people had at these specific locations. And then lastly we created a mobile responsive website that showcased audio excerpts from the walk and made it easy to download the walk from a smart phone just on the street. And I was actually the one who came up with the website. So I really believe that imagination is actually the most immersive idiom. And the real magic of the walk is this juxtaposition between what you're seeing and hearing and then what reminds [INAUDIBLE] in that space. And I really believe that audio is a powerful method for stirring the imagination. Audio carries emotions and places in a way that visuals don't. So a few takeaways is that Southside Stories really looks at generational memory and how we create identity and relationship to a place and society. And the fabric of our society is knit together through our stories. Through a narrative, we can change our biases and make the invisible visible. Walking down the street becomes a real political act as we choose who to talk to and who to not make eye contact with, the kinds of businesses we choose to go into, or simply how we perceive others on the street. Perception is the [INAUDIBLE] meeting of meeting and the audio walk suits to transform our perceptions. The audio walk itself ends with a story from author Henry Miller. He lived in the neighborhood as a boy in the early 20th century when the neighborhood was a very different place. It was a densely-populated, working-class district where the various ethnic groups-- that were Irish, German, and Italian, Jewish, Polish-- lived elbow-to-elbow and constantly clashed. And no neighborhood in New York City stays the same over a period of 60 years. The real overall narrative of the walk seeks to broaden the scope of the neighborhood that the neighborhood is not stagnant [INAUDIBLE] point, but is a place that is constantly changing socially and politically and that we are active agents in that change. And I loved what [INAUDIBLE] was saying yesterday in her presentation about Los Angeles Urban Rangers, is that the city is always a state of becoming and it's yours to decide how to create it. And this walk certainly provokes that idea as well. As a storyteller we can give permission people-to-people to go into the places that they wouldn't otherwise. In designing the walk, we created the parameters for the experience and thoughtfully constructed opportunities for change. The walk itself is not perfect, but one of the things I love about it is that no two people can have the same experience on the walk based on who they see and who they bump into and start a conversation with. I believe that audio and media has great potential in public spaces to produce understanding and empathy. As a form of feeling and empowerment, to imagine our ideal selves, broadens our perspectives, to create a sense of wonder and to connect ourselves closer to our sense of place and others. Through these walks, we can increase our sense of presence and connection to the current moment. So a few recommendations I also have is that I found that one of the difficult points with location-based media is access to it. And obviously it's very hyper-local. But oftentimes just getting people to view the thing itself is probably the most difficult parts of it. And so a way to make sure that you have, that you're really meeting the audience that you want to do the project is to eventize it and to premiere the project at larger events or a festival so you have a definite cohort of people who are doing it. And it also just helps to create a sense of momentum and also a sense of scarcity like, oh you know, I have to go to this because my friend's going to it and I won't have another chance. Just think about ways to give people incentive to participate. And also think entrepreneurially. What problem are you solving through creating this project and choosing the medium? And how is it really meeting the needs of the audience that you're trying to connect with. And think about really like what-- most communication that your audience is using anyway, what is natural to them? And what is really the right platform because perhaps they don't use smart phones. Maybe like this is something that would be completely inaccessible to them. And so you'd have to think about how are they communicating in first place and then what you can do to actually amplify that and choose the right platform to do so. I also just wanted to mention that we did think about using other devices in terms of video or using something that was more connected to visualization that's on the smart phone. But we really made the decision early on that we wanted to use audio also because just to keep people looking up and not down at their devices. And we created as rather than as different points of audio triggers, we really wanted to have a singular, narrative experience that would take somebody through the neighborhood and have [INAUDIBLE] narrative art through it. And then also through interactions, think about how you can record that participation. Once again, just give people incentive to participate. Thank you so much for having me here. And I'm just so excited to speak again on the panel discussion after this. And I think that these audio tours are just amazing ways to get people closely, more closely connected to their spaces. Get them out of their comfort zone and participating with others. I almost forgot that when was in my undergrad one of my boyfriends was completely obsessed with Jane Jacobs and The Death and Life of American Cities and would hold these reading groups all the time. And I almost completely forgot actually how much that influenced probably this particular project up until yesterday. And I think that bringing back that central what her [INAUDIBLE] of bring these active spaces and at least urban landscapes, even if through all these conversations about technology and what technology can do of keeping, like going back to those premises and thinking about how we can really activate our cities and engage people. Thank you. [APPLAUSE] Hi, I'm introducing Morgan Grefe. I'm Marissa Brown with the Center for Public Humanities. Morgan is the Executive Director of the Rhode Island Historical Society. She has been for four years. She got her PhD in American Studies from Brown about 10 years ago and joined the Historical Society almost 11 years ago. She won't be talking about her dissertation but I love her topic so I wanted to mention it. She did her dissertation on the preservation and interpretation of prisons in the United States. And she thinks two of her dissertation advisors are in the audience. Join me in welcoming Morgan who will be talking about Rhode Tour and also her work at the Rhode Island Historical Site. Thanks. [APPLAUSE] Good morning. Thank you, Marissa. Thank you Brown and Brian for putting this on. And thank you, Marissa, for all the work you've done putting this conference together. As Marissa mentioned, I'm going to be covering a couple things today but that intersect pretty deeply. When we talked about what I would discuss today, Marissa mentioned that it might be good to go behind the scenes, as other people have, in talking about this process. So what I want to talk about today is not just road tour but how we as a nearly 200-year-old organization with an established tour program made a choice to participate in this and to complement our existing tours with this new platform that we have and this elaborative platform that we have in Rhode Island. I want to talk first a little bit about what we do, why we've made this decision, and then go into road tour. But thinking back to one of the things that Marc said in the very beginning and that has been reiterated again and again. And so much of what has come up in the last couple of days in these amazing talks have been that intersection between the new and the old and how we don't really forget about the old as we go forward. And as the historical society, that's sort of our mission. And thinking about how we structured this and not throwing out what works well. And I was thinking since yesterday about two young women who I was a judge for a local history day competition. I'm not sure if you all know about that. That's sort of like a high school science fair but about history. And I asked everyone that I was interviewing what it was, what surprised them the most about the process of doing historical research. What did they like the most? And what surprised them? And these two very earnest young women who had done an absolutely gorgeous project on the song Strange Fruit looked at me and they said, you know we were looking for stuff for like ever and couldn't find much. But you know where there's amazing stuff? Books. [LAUGHTER] And I said, yeah. Books are great sometimes. It's that constant struggle with how do we work with people surprised by the notion of books and being a repository ourselves? We do between our walking tours and our museums we do about 1,000 docent-led tours a year. So this is big business for us. It's also a revenue stream. So this isn't something that we can jump into without thinking about how is this going to affect our bottom line? How is this going to affect our staff and what we ask them to do and our incredible volunteers, about 145 of them, who work with us throughout the year on giving tours in various forms. The decisions that we make have an effect on not just our membership and the public but also on our business model. This is something when we make a change that we have to take quite seriously. But one of the challenges that we had is our commitment to interpreting the past to the public was running up against some barriers. And of them were technological and some of them were financial. And we needed to really sort that out because we are committed to, as many of our partners in the audience are, to making history accessible to everyone and to removing as many barriers to interaction with our historic landscape and our shared and collective past as possible. So how are we going to reinvigorate our delivery models and our content to serve our publics better? One of the things that we are also very committed to as the state-wide historical society is collaboration and partnership. In fact, again like one of my main partners here in the audience today, Newport Historical Society who you'll be hearing from later this afternoon, collaboration and partnership isn't just something we like to do. It's in fact a strategic agenda that we have and it's part of our business model. We seek out collaborations. And we seek out partnerships when they make the most for delivering history. In this era of only when the flexible survive, we had to think about how do we do this and how do we do this in a way that actually increases our reach and increases our sustainability? So with that in mind, I want to back up a little bit and talk about some of the things that were pushing us to contemplate moving from our existing model. In addition to my work at the historical society, I'm also lucky enough to teach occasionally. So I teach at University of Rhode Island and Rhode College in public history and teach Rhode Island history. And when I was teaching at Rhode Island College recently I asked my students to do a brief examination of walking tour options in the city of Providence and then to pick another city globally to look at the various tour options and opportunities available to tourists and citizens in those cities. And I wanted to know at the end where did they come down on it? Did they think that docent-led tours were the way to go? Did they want a map, self-guided walking tours, an app? What do they want? What do they see working best? They had to interview their friends, their families, their roommates and ask them as 20-year-olds what it was that they were looking for. And the answer I got surprised me a little bit in that moment, though it really shouldn't have. The answer was they wanted all of it. They didn't want a docent-led tour. They didn't want an app. On Tuesday, they wanted an app. On Wednesday, they wanted a docent-led tour. on Wednesday evening, they wanted a self-guided map. And it's because we really do live in this moment where choice is an incredible part of how people interact with everything. So it might be that they want an app because they want to take a tour on a Sunday evening, and none of them are offered. But they might be going on a date on Saturday and want just the map so they can have a private experience with the two people, but still one that's interactive and interpersonal between the two of them. And then the next week, they might have an assignment and want to go on a tour during the day and have somebody that they can ask questions to. So how do we as a historical society, let alone ones much smaller than we are, how we handle with our staff size, our financial limitations, embedding that much choice in our repertoire? And the same time that we were exploring this with our students, we were also working on a Mellon-funded project, which we called Rhody, the Rhode Island History Online Directory Initiative, where we were mapping and doing a needs assessment of the history and heritage sector in Rhode Island. Now you've probably heard, Rhode Island is a small state, quite tiny in comparison to many others. But it's not small in terms of the density with which we have history and heritage organization. We have 464 history organizations in Rhode Island. And those are simply the ones that are actual organizations not just private clubs. These are ones that have some degree of collections that they share with the public. So this is an incredibly dense historical landscape that we have. And many of them are quite small. And almost all of them, no matter what their size, are struggling financially with cataloging and getting intellectual control of their collections, let alone physical control in terms of their environment. And they're also very much struggling in this moment because in the heyday of the '80s and '90s with school visitation they had incredibly, often incredibly close relationships with their local school systems. They had a lot of field trips. They had a lot of tours. They knew the teachers. Teachers were at these schools for very long periods of time. And they had felt those relationships break down. A lot of this has to do with the decline in volunteerism, not because there are fewer volunteers but because they are pulled in more directions. It has to do with teachers spending less time in one place. So there's more mobility and less, a shorter amount of time spent in any one school district. And of course we all know about the limitations in terms of time that teachers have to spend doing any one subject let alone take kids out of school, access to buses, all of that. And in Rhode Island history while it is taught in every school district, there is no mandated curriculum for history in Rhode Island. So any of the 39 districts can teach whatever history they choose at whichever time they choose to teach it. So at our more most mobile districts of Providence, Pawtucket, and Central Falls all cluster very closely together, you can move between 7th and 12th grade if you move during the appropriate summer and never have American history from 7th through 12th grade. So these small sites are really struggling with how to connect and looking at some of the larger organizations in the state to find ways to put them back into touch with these K through 12 schools. We also work with a lot of teachers and classrooms. We got to know a lot of teachers in new ways through the teaching American history grant program. And what they keep asking for especially with common core, I'm sure all of you know, is access to primary documents. They are mandated to use primary documents and history documents are an incredible way for them to get that into their classrooms. So they are hungry for that content. But they need to find ways again that engage their students. These histories are not going to appear in any regular textbook. And the teachers are struggling with where to get good information. We also work with an increasing special-needs community. It's one of our particular programs at the Historical Society, especially in at our Museum of Work and Culture to work with special needs K through 12 students especially around the autism spectrum but also those with physical special needs, visual impairment, and hearing impairment. And that extends to our senior community, which is a huge part of the users and participants. We know that the school teachers are having a hard time getting the time to bring their students to locations to do, say, a walking tour. But they're hungry for that content and that experience. And they're also really eager to find out what's in their local community. We know that families and individuals and classrooms that have special needs in particular are often looking for ways to go through materials that they can access without issues around mobility. Again, this is a challenge in historic museums. It's also a challenge on traditional walking tours. So we felt that we needed to start exploring other opportunities. We already had audio tours at our museums, so how could we think about our walking tours differently. At around the same time, the Rhode Island Council for the Humanities was funding a project through the John Nicholas Brown Center for the students who were working there and with community scholars, university scholars around different aspects of history and using the platform Curatescape, which you'll hear much more about in a bit and hear much more eloquently from Marc later today. We're using this platform to share stories that were not being covered by traditional walking tours. And one of the things that this platform could do was that even though Rhode Island is, as I mentioned, quite small, you can't walk everywhere conveniently. So that 10-mile walk between sites was going to be a real problem for certain people. So we were going to look at tours that are these stories that could arc and go throughout an entire state but it can be found discretely as a tour on this location. So it was very important that we had a platform that could be accesses by any classroom, any individual, anyone who is seated at a desktop or laptop or tablet but also one that had an app translation to it. And Curatescape offered that opportunity. As the Council for the Humanities and the JNBC were working on these projects, we got very interested because, of course, this is what we do. We give tours. We have incredible information. And we know that our history and heritage constituents and our teachers are hungry for this information. So how could we come in and thankfully our partners, very traditional partners at the Council for the Humanities and our neighbors at Brown welcomed us into this conversation about road tour. And we're now in the process of figuring out how to best use this and how to add to these tours that already exist. You already heard from Holly Ewald yesterday. As Holly had mentioned they do this incredible urban [INAUDIBLE] processional but they also turned this into a road tour so that it can exist all year around for people who are interested in learning about this [INAUDIBLE]. It's a great tool to share this message and get it out. It's also an incredible way, not to be mercenary about this, but to show funders what you're doing in a way that they can actually experience it not have to wait for that event. One of the other ones, the one I wanted to highlight today, Orphanages, Asylums, and Almshouses was created curated by the Rhode Tour Team largely through the work of Professor Sandra Enos. And it is one of these tours where we could not do this as a walking tour. It is a state-wide history and tells stories often of things that are no longer there. But it takes incredible advantage of what this platform affords and that is ways in which we can still use a very traditional text-based narrative. So you can see we have quotes from the 19th century. And this is about the state home and school. So anyone who is at their computer has access to this to see all of this and this information about the site. You can also, it's pinned on the map so you can go through the map function as well. You can key in on images. This is Elizabeth Buffum Chace. If you're doing any social welfare studies in 19th century in Rhode Island, I'm sure her picture will be there. But it also allows us to embed audio and video functions. And this was really important to us because with a state, and I think it should be the new state motto, which is Rhode Island, historically dense. With the density of organizations here and the material, people have been collecting for centuries the stories of individuals, events and have been telling these stories again and again. And this platform allowed us to use archival materials from private collections, different organizations and do it in a way that's [VIDEO PLAYBACK] -My mother had a nervous breakdown because there was no food and this was just the middle of the depression too. It was, everybody was poor. And that she had a nervous breakdown so the state came and picked her up and took her to Howard, the mental institution. And my brother took off. And we didn't want to be there because [INAUDIBLE] were kids. We wanted to be home but even though there's nothing there, that's where you wanted to be. But now that I think about it now, I really think it saved our lives. [END PLAYBACK] So you here there is an excerpt of Sandra's interviews with grown individuals who spent time as children in the state home and school. She had collected these years ago and put together a CD of this information. But here was a new way to share these edited audio clips of these experiences. It was also a way for us to embed video. [VIDEO PLAYBACK] -On April 6, 2003, Rhode Island College held a special dedication honoring all the children who had one time spent part of their childhood in the state home and school. In an end to further preserve the history and legacy of the state home and school, scholars hope to have the last remaining cottage as a resource center for the study of child welfare. -It was just nice to have some acknowledgement that somebody said, you know what, this is important enough for all the children who stayed there that we should do a dedication or a memorial. That made all the difference of the world to me. And I was able to just put that little piece of my life away. [END PLAYBACK] So this allows for a whole new life for this material that was collected for scholarly programs, for work within a university, work done within classrooms and really does allow it to go into anyone's home, anyone space. We're finding people who are looking at this before they would go and visit a certain location. It also allows us to complement existing tours. We do our Benefit Street Tour, which was our standard and most popular tour at the historical society. But doing a Benefit Street tour through this kind of app allows for video, newspaper clips, audio, the kind of sound that we heard about in the last experience that we heard about New York. You can do that kind of work historically on Benefit Street in a way that also complicates a narrative and layers in the history of the education, the history of communities that had been displaced as well as voices that are generally not able to be shared in a typical walking tour. So this allows us to use multimedia, use our archives better, give the sites around the state a real handle on, we know they have sense that they should be digitizing things. But the question is to why and to what end? And so this gives a real concrete way in which we can have a shared platform with a shared language that our users can learn this platform very well and learn how to anticipate what they're doing in that tour and also to allow sites to see how their collections can respond in conversation with the collections and stories of individuals, organizations around the state as well. So we're very interested in how this can work together to bring various narratives and perspectives from all over the state into one platform to really complement each other in ways that our isolated walking tours haven't been able to before. We're very excited about the way in which we're just learning about how to use this technology even better. We're starting to really try to embed a better analytics into this process. We hear that is coming even with the app within the calendar year is the hope. So we can start to learn how people are using this on the ground and in their classrooms, in their homes. We're also starting to learn about how to layer things better, how to tell stories in one location about different things. So what are the best practices about creating an arc, about how long people will stay one place. How many people are using audio? How many people are using video? And then what are the challenges that we face? How do we teach people how to tell the story in a good way that keeps people engaged? How do we have the style guide that allows people to retain their own voice, their own tone, their own individuality. So those are the things that we're working through. How do we include multiple languages into these tours? So those are just some of the questions that we are addressing within our group right now as we seek to develop this as a platform that more people in the state can use. But with any collaboration there are these challenges. There's the challenge of the technology that is changing as we're changing and growing that we're struggling to understand at times. It's a challenge for organizations to give degrees of autonomy. And you have to decide when you're ready to do that. If you just want to build your own app, and you have the financial and staff means to do that, that's a wonderful thing. So that's one choice that an organization can make. And you have a lot autonomy with that and a lot more control over that. How do you as an organization get comfortable with the fact that you're working and truly collaborating with other organizations? But I think it's an incredibly important conversation to be having as if we truly seek to increase our use as historic sites and historic repositories, we need to find those ways and those languages to reach as many people as possible. And for us, Rhode Tour is a way that we're hoping to do that. Thank you. [APPLAUSE] Hello. My name is Jonathan Cortez and I'm currently a doctoral student in the Department of American Studies as well as a master student in the Public Humanities Program here at Brown University. I will be introducing Dr. Monica Munoz Martinez. Dr. Martinez is an assistant professor of American Studies and Ethnic Studies at Brown University. She received her PhD from the American Studies Program at Yale University where she co-founded the Public Humanities Initiative. Her research has been funded by the Mellon Foundation, the Woodrow Wilson National Foundation, the Recovering the US Hispanic Literary Heritage Foundation, and the Texas State Historical Association. In addition to developing her manuscript, sorry, in addition to developing her manuscript, Inherited Loss: Reckoning with Anti-Mexican Violence, 1910-Present, she is also a Public Humanities Fellow at the John Nicholas Brown Center for Public Humanities and Cultural Heritage. Recently her essay, "Recuperating Histories of Violence in the Americas: Vernacular History-Making on the US-Mexico Border" was the winner of the 2015 Constance Rourke Prize for the best article to appear in the 2014 issue of American Quarterly. Please help me in welcoming Dr. Monica Munoz Martinez. [APPLAUSE] Thank you, Jonathan. And everybody please give Jonathan a round of applause. [APPLAUSE] He has been working with me for a few years now and is a research assistant, who when you give somebody the task, and you say Jonathan I just found out about a new lynching. And I need some newspaper articles to help me write this history. Can you go and immerse yourself in this history? It's not an easy task for somebody to take on. With collaborators like Jonathan, some of the students that are here in the audience, Esteban and with [INAUDIBLE] this work is really possible. It's also possible by the support of the John Nicholas Brown Center who pushes academics here on the campus to think about the publics and to make sure that their research and their work has multiple lines, that not only sits in these books, these students take many years to find but also sits and interacts with the public and is accessible. So I also want to thank Bryant and Brown University for collaborating and for Marissa for being a fierce leader in this whole task. She's been just zipping around nonstop and working effortlessly. So I want to thank her for inviting me to participate. So my research is located, I'll show you, I'm representing a group called refusing to forget, but my own research is located at the intersection of American studies, US history, ethnic studies, and the public humanities. And I've been working across these fields to grapple with the relationship between historical narratives, memory, and contestations between official narratives and vernacular histories. I'm also interested in how power functions through public history. So I'm going to talk a bit about that today. I came to the topic of studying the long legacy of racial violence in Texas through my own interactions with Texas public history. I was born and raised in Texas. And for those of you who live or who have ever visited Texas, you know that Texas pride is fierce and it's aggressive. This is just one example. If you go antiquing people celebrate the Texas Revolution of 1836 and they will warn you that they are packing heat. They don't use public services, they will take you on themselves. So I'm interested in how people navigate the spaces of Texas history, the capitol, the memorials, the monuments, the historical markers, and the text books. And I'm collaborating with a group to commemorate and memorialize the efforts, this long period of anti-Mexican violence that extended from 1910 to 1920 that has been popularly forgotten. So it's estimated that between 1910 and 1920, thousands of ethnic Mexicans, some who are American citizens and others who were citizens of Mexico were killed. And there were no consequences for these killings. And so with the centennials upon us and with a group of historians, local residents, and cultural institutions in Texas were participating in efforts to memorialize this history and really push for a public reckoning with this period of violence. I'm going to talk today about some challenges of this collaboration and working with the state. And I'll also end briefly with a description of Mapping Violence, which is in digital project that is attempting to visualize loss, grief, and bring this database of anti-Mexican, anti-black, and anti-Native violence, really, to public audiences. We're entering the digital frontier. So all of the tours that I've heard about today have been really, my wheels are just turning with excitement for the possibilities of that project. Today I'm going to focus my comments on current conflicts in Texas public memory. And to do that, we going to learn about two spaces in Texas where people learn Texas history outside of mainstream cultural institutions. I'm going to talk to you about first a Dairy Queen in a small rural town in Sabinal, Texas. And the second is a community gathering in an even smaller rural community of Rock Springs, Texas. Using screen shots of Google Maps here, you see Sabinal is west of San Antonio. And it's next to Rock Springs by Texas standards. Let's think a little bit about Sabinal. This is the Dairy Queen in Sabinal. In Sabinal the Dairy Queen provides some of the only gathering spaces for residents outside of public schools and churches. The Dairy Queen, for example, offers more than just fast food gratification. It's a social space. Men gather for coffee in the morning. Friends meet for ice cream. And athletic teams unload from school buses to fuel up after competitions. In the rural town short on cultural institutions, the Dairy Queen is also a community space of remembrance. Next to advertisements for belt-buster cheeseburgers, patrons can tour a photographic exhibit honoring the history of the Texas Rangers. And these are not the urban Rangers or the forest rangers, but these are the Texas Rangers that were charged with policing in Texas at the state police force. The walls display photograph such as this one of companies of Texas Rangers that patrolled the area in the early 20th century. Aside from Rangers, the common items in the photos include rifles, horses, and Rangers themselves. During a recent trip, my encounter soon changed from genuine intrigue to shock as I noticed two photographs of mob violence. On a wall next to an advertisement, one of the images reveals seven men standing in front of a wooden shack with the printed words, "ready for the hanging." While the second image shows a shack with a man suspended from the rickety roof by a rope tied around his neck. This is the photograph that I took very quickly because I didn't want to have questions about why I was taking photographs. But you can see just the exit sign up above, the end, so this was just mounted right next to the exit sign in the Dairy Queen. You will also see casual display of this image of violence right next to the mmm moolatte advertisement. And this is also right above the trash can. So people who were going to discard their belt-buster cheeseburger remnants or their french fry containers see this exhibit. This exhibit raises questions about shared histories of violence and the glorification of state apparatuses popularly imagined to be founders of national and regional security. The Texas Rangers today remain celebrated in literature, television, like a long ranger, and Walker, the Texas Ranger here, and even in professional sports, like the baseball franchise Texas Rangers, formerly owned by W. Despite the psychotic status, the photographs at the Dairy Queen expose the tensions and contradictions, in [INAUDIBLE] versus memory. For some residents, the Rangers invoke feelings of pride and nostalgia for frontier cowboys. But for others, they invoke fear and memories of social vulnerability to state-sanctioned violence. At a social vulnerability that for some are not as far removed at the dates labeled throughout the exhibit might suggest. The history of the Texas Rangers is preserved and presented from historical institutions such as the Museum of Texan Cultures, it's in Antonio, the Bullock Texas State History Museum in Austin, and the Texas Ranger Hall of Fame and Museum in Waco, Texas. The Texas Ranger Hall on Fame actually mounts and has portraits of some of the most, some of the Texas Rangers who have the most violent histories and records in the state, are not only policing Mexican residents, but also for in the 19th century being the architects of genocide of native and indigenous communities. There are multiple racial groups that look at hate agents and these icons of Texas history with trouble. While some of the exhibits silence or subdue the of hate racial violence in their narratives, others causally display images of racial violent without concern for the potential discomfort to some viewers. To the contrary, however, these displays have an intimidating effect and helped make claims for belonging for some residences and exclusion of others. From vernacular to state-official exhibits, Texas museums in the 20th century failed to address histories of racial violence within the progressive narratives they constructed. And so this is an effort, my goal as a historian in pushing state cultural institutions to participate in relooking at this history of racial violence. So now we're going to move from Sabinal to Rocksprings, our site of location located about 90 miles northwest. The natural beauty of the hill country was the backdrop for arguably the most well-known lynching of a Mexican national in the United States. In 1910, increasing racial suspicion of Mexican laborers arriving in town boiled over. When an Anglo woman was found brutally murdered outside her home, local residents set the hills ablaze. On November 2, 1910, 40-year-old Effie Greer Henderson lay dead on her porch. The young mother was survived by her husband and their five children. And soon after the murder, a posse apprehended and arrested Mexican national Antonio Rodriguez who crossed paths with posse on a nearby ranch. That afternoon a group of local residents removed the accused from his jail cell and marched him towards the end of town. The mob bound him to a barbed mesquite tree. They saturated the [INAUDIBLE] with kerosene before setting it on fire. Competing histories of this case in Rocksprings are preserved in public memory in southwest Texas and ingrained in a local landscape. At the Edwards County cemetery a granite tombstone reads, "Antonio Rodriguez died November 3, 1910. Burned at stake." Not more than 50 yards away stands a tombstone of Effie Henderson that reads, "Mother born July 20, 1869. Died November 2, 1910." Just as the grave stones of Antonio Rodriguez and Effie Greer Henderson remain in Rocksprings so too do the memories of their murders. This act of mob aggression significantly added to Rocksprings reputation as being one of the most racially-hostile towns in Texas. And people who might remain divided today as to whether the lynching was an act of justice or merely racism in action. These are photographs of the tree that's over the Rodriguez tomb, the grave. This is an image of the grave as it is now in Edwards County. And close by is the grave stone for Effie Henderson. So memories of the lynchings live beyond newspaper accounts, consulate records, and historical narratives. And truly this was a lynching of a Mexican national that left a huge mass of documents in it's wake. There were consulate investigations into the lynching. President Taft had to respond to what was happening in south Texas. Students in Guadalajara had protests against anti-Mexican violence in this period. And so there really wasn't a rich historical archive to look into this lynching. But for the most part, people in Rocksprings don't remember the diplomatic crisis. Right. They remember and in telling this story generationally from one generation to the next and have competing memories of this lynching itself. On November 4, 2010 approximately 50 residents gathered to recognize the 100-year anniversary of the murder of Henderson and the lynching of Antonio Rodriguez. A group of Anglo and Mexican Americans convened at the Catholic church in Rocksprings for a memorial service for Rodriguez. Later residents moved to the cemetery for a candlelight vigil where the group prayed, sang, and surrounded a little priest as he blessed the grave for the departed. During the mass the priests led the residents in a prayer for the souls of Rodriguez and Henderson, for both of their families, and for the persons who brought harm to them, and for the residents of the area to release any lingering grief. He ended his sermon by asking for God to give the residents of Rocksprings the strength to forgive and to heal. And this is a photograph of the vigil as people were passing candles. These two women here are the organizers who helped to get the memorialization off the ground. This is another picture of them escaped in memorial. Afterwards people gathered at a local community center and people were asked to bring any sort of evidence that they had on the lynching. And so people brought, made copies of newspaper articles that they kept that families had preserved. They went to the county courthouse and made copies for everybody. And so this was the space, this table here is where people would pick up information and learn things about their history that they hadn't learned before. So this memorial exposes memories of anti-Mexican violence that are embedded in the landscape. It exposes the practices of community members in recalling histories of racial violence and signals the need to grapple with the long-lasting effects of the murder of an Anglo ranch wife and the lynching of a Mexican migrant neighbor. In the absence of judicial and diplomatic resolutions for the lynching, local residents have grappled with the reverberating impact of the event on social relations throughout the 20th century and well into the 21st century. The Rockspring lynching, however, represents only a fraction of the acts of anti-Mexican violence. And current federal and state police regimes really have roots in this period of violence that need to be investigated. But for residents in Texas, history continues to be divisive. The period of anti-Mexican violences has become widely recognized amongst historians as a period of ethnic cleansing in our history that is popularly forgotten. Book, lots of books have come to this conclusion. But popular memory has remained. And so one of the questions that I wanted to think about is how is it that public history can work to really change popular understandings of Texas history to reflect on this moment of violence. There's some real obstacles to doing that work. But as the centennial has arrived, refusing to forget is a collaborative effort to mark this centennial. And so we're collaborating to memorialize, to reckon with this period of violence. The efforts will help to recover the contributions not only of victims but to actually look at early civil rights pioneers in Texas who protested these acts and to really help reshape common understandings. Public dialogue is something that we're working for. We're doing it in a series of ways. We've applied for Texas state historical markers to designate some of these locations. The lynching of Antonio Rodriguez is on that we've submitted applications for twice and have both been denied. Others we have been successful in terms of getting the applications and the markers approved. And I'm happy to talk about some of those dynamics later. But there are two big questions that I would like to pose and think through with you. The first is, what does it mean to reflect on the long consequences of this period? Memorialization and creating public space for mourning loss is a needed part of this. This is something that can be done, however, outside of the state. The residents of Rocksprings are really a great example of the people who aren't waiting for state institutions to say we need to have a memorialization of this event. They did this work on their own. But for bringing powerful reckoning with this period of violence, it also requires the involvement of the state. State recognition not only of this period of violence, but at the state's involvement in this history. So Texas governors, Texas Rangers, US soldiers, and other state administrators who participated and called for these acts of violence. To have the state take responsibility for past crimes means having the state institutions that play a role in shaping popular understandings of Texas history to take this period seriously. Towards this end, we're collaborating with the Texas Historical Convention and involved Bullock Texas State History Museum for all multi-year series of historical marker unveilings, public lectures, and an exhibit at the Bullock Museum in January 2016 that will then, if funds allow for those who are [INAUDIBLE] at granting institutions, the exhibit will have another life as a traveling exhibit. The second big question, however, remains how to reshape common understandings of Texas history. The obstacles to this seems insurmountable for a few reasons. For one, since the early 20th century, politicians, the mainstream press, and state officials criminalized Mexican residents and called for their violent policing. And just that phrase echoes today. It resonates today. The label of Mexican bandit gave local vigilantes, police, state agents, and US soldiers a license to kill at will. In my own research, I document how politicians, the media, and historians convinced broader publics that anti-Mexican violence should be remembered as a symbol of progress and a moment to celebrate. For them, more deal Mexican bodies near the border meant safer conditions for Anglo settlement, consumption, and [INAUDIBLE] So efforts to control historical representations of this violence became critically important in state building efforts. And one of the best examples is what you heard after the start period of violence in 1919. In 1919, there was actually an investigation into the actions of Texas Public Rangers, Texas Rangers, excuse me, for their role in orchestrating and participating in violence. People were interviewed in front of a legislative community. The transcripts of the investigation describe how this period of violence transformed the landscape of the border region, Testimonies who recall the landscape littered with corpses, testimonies of more than 1,600 pages offered examples of police abuse and extralegal acts of violence at the state police. And this is actually of the Texas state archives have now digitized. The investigation online, there's three volumes of these hundreds of pages and a range of people were interviewed. And this is a new historical resource that's now being widely made available for people to study and interact with. Despite the findings of witness testimonies, the investigation did not shift the culture of impunity. To the contrary, during the investigation commissioners and some witnesses defended regular abuse and supported brutal methods of policing. The proceedings did not change the procedures of the state agency nor does it lead to the prosecution of any Rangers that were shown to have committed murders or participated in terror. In the wake of the 1919 state investigation, the state administration took a series of steps to ensure that the widespread use of extralegal violence by agents and the efforts by state administrators to cover these crimes would not undermine state authority. The state actively moved to erase the atrocities from public dialogue. The first step in this process was actually sealing the records of this investigation. The testimonies and records of state-sanctioned brutality and horror were filed away in state archives. Historians and state institutions would do better than that. They would make a popular historical narrative that did not erase this period of violence but instead it venerated the agents who were bringing Texas to a state of modernity. Their violent policing practices with Colt 44 revolvers in hand would be celebrated and immortalized as the embodiment of Texas masculinity and pride. One Texan, however, had access to the investigation. State archivists allowed a historian of the University of Texas at Austin, Walter Prescott Webb, access and unlimited access to their investigation and to their archives. He wrote and published the book, The Texas Rangers: A Century of Frontier Defense. I wanted to speak to you for a moment about Walter Prescott Webb not only because he's a historian who helped to write this narrative, but he was somebody who did the public work of the public humanities. He not only wrote and participated in the academy and published research, but he was a pioneer in making sure that his narratives were then circulated and marked the landscape through memorials and public history. So let's think about his culture of authority. He was a member of the UT Austin History Department for over 40 years. He was the director of a Texas historical association for 7 years. He served one term as president of the American Historical Association. And he also received two Guggenheim Fellowships, not one but two, and a fourth fellowship among others. So selecting Webb to have full access to the records, that state institution left the Texas Ranger legacy to a well-trusted and well-respected guardian. This is his photograph of him at the time that he fell through as a history professor. This is my favorite picture of him. Doesn't he look so tenacious? We'll go back to this one. So in terms of his work, he had a long legacy and publication of his ode to the Texas Rangers coincided with the centennial of the Texas Revolution, the 100th year anniversary of Texas's independence from Mexico. The state allocated more than $3 million of state funds for the construction and placing of markers, memorials, and buildings. And they commissioned the construction of monuments to honor the early patrons of the state. But they also funded the purchase of land for celebrations, for state pageants, and expositions. In total, the state placed over 1,000 exposition buildings, memorial museums, statues, and markers around the state. And that's what helped to imprint his version of the history of violence that I'm describing to you across the state. These are photographs at the Texas centennial, advertisements, promotional material for the actual celebrations in Dallas. These are some photographs of some of the memorials that were unveiled in different parts of Texas. And these were miniature souvenirs of cotton bails. So they also celebrated the agricultures of Texas not just some of their favorite icons. Also going to move through to show you that children were encouraged to participate in the celebration of the Texas Rangers. They too learned the lessons of the Texas Rangers and the Texas history. I'll take you now to thinking about historical markers in Texas that now exist that in many ways mirror this narrative that justifies the racial violence that occurred in the 19th century, in the early 20th century. And this is a historical marker that was erected in 1970 outside of small [INAUDIBLE] close to Sabinal and to Rocksprings. And it's an example of a marker that, it's called the Chalk Bluff Indian Massacre. And the marker itself marks violence at the hands of indigenous groups against Anglo settlers. This is one of these markers that continues to call for the militarization we've seen of indigenous groups. It's an example of one kind history of violence that is erected in Texas. And you can also see from a close up what some people have thought of this representation of the history of Texas. You see some gunshots, some profanity. And I show this to help people think about the reality that in places like Texas, Texas Historical Commissions are not seen as allies. They are seen as racist institutions. And so there's a real urgency behind the work that we're doing not only to make sure that these historical commissions or the museums attend to these histories but also that they start to repair relationships with huge demographics of people in the state of Texas. Texas is not, will soon be a minority majority state. And many of the counties, like Edwards County, they are rewarding majority counties. And so we think about the audiences of public history, if we don't start to repair relationships with communities that are diverse in the states, that will be a missed opportunity, that audiences will continue to shrink as population and demographic changes emerge. I'm going to just end by showing you some of the work that I've been doing as a student just very briefly to start mapping these events of violence, recognizing that collaborating with state institutions is very slow, become excellent allies in Texas Historical Commission and also in Bullock Museum. But in terms of making some of this work accessible, we're exploring how to visualize not only the lengthy database of these events of racial violence but then also thinking through the possibilities for creating curated tours, recognizing that this map and others like it would be helpful for researchers who want to research this history. But for people who just stumble upon it, we what people to take with them curated information about histories of violence and recognizing that these are sensitive histories that need to be packaged in ways that are accessible not only to adults but also to children so they can be used in higher education. So I'm going to end there because my timer is out, just barely. And look forward to the conversations with my colleagues who have exceptional ideas for the best ways to use the digital tours that we've discussing today. [APPLAUSE] OK. Thank you. Welcome back. Hope your bellies are full and you're to sit and listen and ask questions, hyper caffeinated questions at that. So once again, just a round of applause again for this incredible talent. [APPLAUSE] And I think there's so much to talk about and so much diversity in terms of what we really discussed here today that I want to make sure we leave ample time for questions from all of you, because there's a number of different angles I think that just really intersects with the congress's mission as a whole and also with a lot of the work that we wind up doing in our professions. But I want to leave with one quick question that I want to open up to the entire panel so answer however you'd like. And it's one that I've been both concerned about professionally [INAUDIBLE] and as a scholar, designer, whatever you wan to call what I do. And also one that I think [INAUDIBLE] and what I've seen on Twitter, at least during the mix of this panel, has really been concerned about as well. And that's the question of audience evaluation and impact and what you potentially learned about your audiences in the midst of doing these projects and really the question of how you measured impact at the end. Is it about your numbers? Is it about depth of contact? Is it about spending a certain amount of time at a particular location? Is it about getting in the boat, so to speak? Or are there are other ways of looking at impact here and awareness. So I want to open that up to the group. Anyone [INAUDIBLE]. Or I'll just look at you and call on you in my old professorial way. Well, I'll start. I have a couple ways of measuring audience that are pretty traditional. One is when you have an app in the story, you're able to look at downloads, not just sheer numbers, but you're able to see geographies of download. And I very quickly realized that we were getting downloads from like Romanian and Japan. And many of those people probably weren't coming to do the on-site narrative. So I realized that with many of these mobile documentary projects, there's definitely going to be an online audience for it. I had started off more audio-focused and that made me realize that hey, if we can have a video component where some of it's easier to share over the web, and I think video is a little easier than audio to pass around, that would behoove having a larger online audience. Then the second thing we did is more qualitative, audience testing, where we actually shadowed people taking these walks and took notes on what their experience was like afterwards via interviews. And that's what's great. The third component that might be the most important is that concierge that you saw, the people who are like the permanent parts of your exhibit on the ground. And they'll report on A, numbers that are coming, but also B, what it means to be able to have this concierge in this case, this kind of very intimate connection to both the neighborhood and the history and the pride that he felt that he was part of that performance was like another way that we got data on audience. And for me when I'm also giving advice to other people about making these types of projects, I really always recommend to first look at who your audience is and then the goals that you have for that audience. I'm thinking about what does that impact really mean to you? And how will your project be successful based on the goals that you have for the audience that you are really focusing on? For us, we really the whole gist of this product was creating a difference in perspective and also just getting people to really look at how the relationship with the city is and what kind of power that they have over that. And so that is very much more of a qualitative impact that we really wanted than a quantitative impact. And so that was really our central focus. And our feedback from the walk has been overwhelmingly positive for those who have done it. That's really our I guess summary of that. And then for the people who aren't actually located on the ground or just couldn't have access to the neighborhood, we created a website where you can you listen to different audio excerpts. That's also how we reached those people who are not in the neighborhood itself. I'm also, I'm really taking notes on the presentations that I saw where people have built in feedback from that and people surveying the users as they're using the device. I think that's ingenious. I think the Lone Rangers also took that model like a Lone Rangers-- [LAUGHTER] --the Urban Rangers with their student projects, which is to take hold of the momentum and get the information soon and quick. For our public project, we're still at the, the exhibit hasn't been unveiled yet. It will be in January 2016. But there is a big buzz in Texas. We're getting media coverage. And because of the tensions in Texas surrounding this history, we were very apprehensive. And actually the people who have been reaching out from all different ranges of Texas residents have actually been reaching out with more information. We've been able to conduct more interviews with people who have information of this history. People have donated for the exhibit their objects from their personal and private archives of their family histories, and these are people from all walks of Texas history and all the walks of this side of history. So what we're actually doing with the Bullock and as a group is building these mechanisms in our social media interactions but also for the museum exhibit itself to offer opportunities for people to volunteer to be interviewed and to tell their stories, and so thinking about the centennial as not being a sort of closing to the story but of actually an opening up of the public dialogue. So that's where I'll leave it there. And I'll let you know how things go in January with the unveiling. Can I just ask just it's something about that because you're at an actually really interesting stage in terms of impact and how you foresee it down the line. Because impact and our measurements of it evolve and change as a project goes on. But what is your goal at this point? Is it awareness? Is it participation? Is it engagement? Is it really curating those communal histories and so on? It's all of those things and it's also to collaborate with families who have been trying to tell these histories for generations. And so in, for example, the efforts to get the Texas Historical Commission to mark some of these histories, the lynching is one that has not been remembered. Another that I wrote about in this article that received an award, it's a bittersweet award because on the one hand, more people are reading about this a double murder that occurred in Hidalgo County on September 27, 1915. The centennial of this tragedy occurred this weekend and we will instead of planning the unveiling of a historical marker to actually work in with that history, I'm having to explain to the families why we have to submit the marker application again. There is this sort of moment of reflection where the conversation and the dialogues are occurring. But there's a lot of work that has to be done. And if you think about places like the Dairy Queen in Sabinal, there's a broader context for the importance of these dialogues to continue. Thank you. I guess I'll go back to the more mundane issue of evaluation. And for us, I think there are, each piece on the steering committee we have three quite different organizations, and then within that, each tour we've had different creators of those tours. So there are different projects that have different particular measures that they're interested in. So it is a challenge, but I would say in reflecting on them from the Historical Society's perspective, there are certain measurements that we're going to be able to find with increased use of analytics. So those same things that you're talking about in terms of how many downloads are we getting? What are the demographics of the people using them? What's the difference in those between who's using the app versus who's using the desktop version of our Rhode Tour. So we are very interested about how it's being used as a tool. But above and beyond that I think there will be pieces of this as we begin to think about how classrooms are using it. So that will be a more traditional sort of question and answer [INAUDIBLE] with the incredible connections with teachers that we already have been asking how are you using it and doing a bit of longitudinal evaluation about early adopters and then how it used going forward as more things are added to the site. So I think there will be different evaluation markers in the beginning as we try to get people interested in using it and to follow, how they're using it. And that's what we're really interested in to try to understand then questions like how many folks are using this and then going to a historic site. So who is looking at it and then going? Who's looking at it then taking an in-person tour. How are we using this sort of the hybridity or the kind of analog and digital at the same time. So are people using both. So we are also looking at, as we move forward, using Curatescape using some of the tools that we can add in to increase comments. We were looking at [INAUDIBLE] yesterday to use a platform that allows us to get-- we looked at one example yesterday where people took a tour of their community and then added in their own photographs into the comments section and said, this is my family doing that. And so that's another way I think that all of us are interested in measuring the utility of this tool. And that is to collect those histories that are not yet in the hands of certain public repositories. What's out there? What are those hidden collections that we can start helping to try and identify and connect people more deeply with their family history being a regional history and a national and international history. So I think that as many audiences as we have we have ways that we're interested in measuring. And it's really going to be a project by project tweaking of that measurement that we look at. Thank you. And just one quick related question to that that I think also was asked before during the conversation, and I think it's worth asking in this conference as well. In terms of building awareness for your project and actually getting it in the hands of the audience that you want to, what are some strategies? What are lessons learned here? Because in an increasingly crowded media landscape, an increasingly crowded digital humanities landscape, it's no longer enough to say we're going to build it and they'll come. So in what ways are you attempting to use outreach and use the project as a way of really building audiences and also finding audiences? Social media. First you move our as all of the masters and public humanities students develop a social media profile and that, for this project, has been what has helped to garner a lot of interest and excitement. And actually families that have reached out to the project have reached out to us through Facebook. And also after newspaper articles that have covered this history or have covered the efforts have been published locally in Austin or in San Antonio, it's helped people to connect with the website to find more information. And so in figuring out that people are actually clicking on the bibliography to find more information, bringing in other historians and other cultural institutions to guest blog on the website has been really a great way to build alliances but also to build momentum. But I could not have anticipated that somebody who was in their 60s or 70s would be contacting Refusing to Forget through Facebook. That's how they keep in touch I guess with their grandchildren. So they're on it. But people are very active in contacting the group in that way which is exciting. Right. And I also think it's really important to think about how we're meeting your audience on the ground and how for these very specific location-based projects you're actually creating awareness and activating their interest. I mean there's many different like physical ways to do that whereas if you're actually in a public space where you can get some sort of permit to have a sign. Oftentimes I actually recommend going through the arts councils. And they can support you as an artist and oftentimes like the New York City Subway like they'll support artists to have certain posters up or certain ads. And this is also quite difficult because you're also then contesting with all of the commercial advertisements that are also everywhere. Really try to get some sort of more formalized support through councils is a good way to get some sort say a plaque up or some sort of semi-permanent sign at those locations. And then I also just recommend, as I said during my presentation, to think about what events or formal conferences or festivals that you can adhere your project to because that will have a very focused audience that can do your project-- there's an audience, essentially. So I think a couple of things are important for the projects that I do. One is this idea about anchor media piece. And then in the case of the inclusionary housing project, it's a film slash performance. I would say that so the people have access to something that first is more traditional. They can watch it online or on TV. And then they can have this kind of mobile extension from it. The other component I think that's really important is making history topical. The fact that I'm doing a project now that ties into issues that are going to be voted on in a couple of months in San Francisco, it's something that's already got a lot of press and energy behind it, tends to bring in people naturally by virtue of its content. And then the other thing I'd say is partnerships. It's been incredibly key to have certain businesses in the area where the story is set actively recruiting people to come to performances, hosting performances, getting public stations like KQED and larger media channels interested in putting the content out there. And then the last thing that I'd say is that there are certain pitfalls that I do think if you're especially talking about location-based media, A, we thought that those markers that we put up around Gloucester were going get that [INAUDIBLE] and we've seen zero evidence of that. And so this idea that people are going to scan a QR code and that there's going to be somebody who's just wandering is going to step into your story. No, that's not going to happen. It's going to be more by appointment. I think people are going to download and then jump into the story, at least that's the evidence we've seen from Gloucester. The second thing is that I do think that there's this idea too that like oh, if I get a mention of a mobile project on a TV or a radio announcement that that's also going to lead to audience. And there's been very little evidence of that too. Because if you think about it, somebody has to write down the URL, remember it, then download it, then go to the place. And so that's why I think it's really important that we have organizations like detour.com, which is a for-profit business that is massively marketing and massively creating a new practice, which is to get out into the world and explore. And Disney, in it's own right, I mean they're not [INAUDIBLE] any historic content, but they're creating that practice in their theme parks where people are beginning to expect that they can get rich media on their phone that immerses them in places. Yeah and I think that's really important to think about why do people go out to events in the first place and what actually draws you? And oftentimes it's because a friend will be there and because someone you know is like really encouraging your participation, getting out of your house and actually going somewhere to do something. I think that as I was talking about the importance of signs, but I also think that QR codes are greatly overrated in terms of encouraging participations. Most people just ignore flyers on the streets. [INTERPOSING VOICES] We have QR codes now and Rhode Island's history is, wait, what is it? We're very dense. We're historically dense. Oh, OK. Yeah, I think mine had the opposite. That's not good. Yeah, so that was basically it. We're in the early stages of this. We were talking to each other a lot yesterday about what we want to do to actually get word out. So this has been an incredibly well-timed conference and conversations for us to be participating at the point where we have put a lot of content into what we have so far and developed a lot of content that's not up yet as we're working on this. The nice thing though I think about the project in general, because it is based in partnerships is that each of our organizations, in addition to each of the people who created the tours, have built-in audiences that we will be asking folks to, for lack of a better term, exploit, utilize, somethings [INAUDIBLE] so that they can share and get that information out to them. So I think a combination of social media, which we, all of our organizations do, sending things out to our memberships but sending things out to these audiences is very helpful and the partnerships. This is why we're doing this. And the hope is and the inspiration here is for people to see what we're doing and to say, we have stories to share, choosing a platform that is expandable, easy to comprehend. And they can say, and now I have an idea. How can we work with you to do one of our own? So it's very important to us that we're getting it out broadly. And for us, as we talked about partnership not just with other historical organizations, but with other agencies, other types of organizations, independent scholars, and, as we talked about, citizen scholars, people throughout the state who do this work and have tremendous collections on their own. We hope that they come back and they're actually producing contact. And so it's a dialogue with them. So partnerships are key. And I think partnership is also something that we've been really thinking about in the creation of curated tours and curated content and teaching modules is the accessibility of the content or educators are making sure that educators are helping us to shape content as we're exploring it in the upcoming months. In a place like Texas you have state-mandated Texas history classes that students are taking. The goal is not just to create the content but then make it available for people to use it and to be cognizant of the burdens on K through 12 public educators that are very real in terms of resources but also in terms of the standards in which they have to teach to in a testing society, making things easy that teachers don't have to learn how to navigate a website or how to, thinking about digital IQ is really something that I'm thinking about. If my parents can't navigate a tour, then it's not going to work for public audiences. I think constantly thinking about the different registers of how to make it accessible and usable is something that is at the forefront of our development efforts. Yeah, and I just want to add as people are thinking about creating your projects, really think about how you're disseminating and connecting to your audience and really marketing your project and thinking about how that actually fits into the resources that you have both financially and the people who are involved. Because once again, it's just really about focusing on who is your audience and then how do you reach them? And how do you get them out and doing your tour in a public space? And if you don't have enough resources to reach them you have to really think about who you can partner with or what can you do to actually bring them out. Thanks. Let's open this up to questions from the audience. And we have our first over there, I believe. I'm pretty [INAUDIBLE]. Hi. Can you hear me? OK. So I had a general question to everyone about the long-term preservation plans of the content that you're gathering, is what the afterlife of some of this content whether it's audio or video or data about Things Or do you tend to focus more on just the present and the current forms of engagement? How much of a role should-- this is a digital archivist's question-- should considering preservation factor into these sorts of projects? For us at this point it's an interesting question of one we're talking a lot about because what we are dealing with, even more broadly than that and more basically than that is issues around ownership of when multiple people are participating organizations, individuals, are writing and producing content, who owns certain things? And in the case of, for us, if a scholar or an organization, most of these digital audio things have not been produced just for this project. Rhode Tour is a platform that is sharing those things. So those are owned by other repositories and other individuals already. So I think that the issue is not that this is produced content for Rhode Tour but rather repurposed content that's already in other repositories. So for us, we haven't yet got to the point about what is the longevity of this because we don't own that. So we're not as worried about that. So I have two things to say about that. One is the fact that a lot of our projects are based on video makes it much easier to archive components of the experience. That said, to maintain apps going in both the Google Play Store and the iTunes App Store requires maintenance. It's not a ton of maintenance, especially because we have a fairly simple platform. But for the Gloucester tour we had to do a pretty major update to make it work on newer devices. So that's just part of that piece is it's got to be maintained. I would too that tour that we did in Boston has been running continuously for six years. None of our partners wanted to remove the installations. They still have the installations. That does also require a bit of maintenance but they're small and simple. That to me is something I didn't expect that the partners, we thought it would run for six months and it's been six years. And can I just add to that in terms of use of the platform and that kind of maintenance, it was one of the reasons I think we decided to go with something that we didn't create ourselves but rather a platform that would be maintained by another, by Curatescape. We weren't in the position of having to manage the technological updates ourselves when none of us are the tech side of that. And so it made sense for us to partner with someone who was going, a company that's going to do that. There are fees associated with doing that but ones that we felt were the most useful for maintaining the longevity of the projects. So I really think that you should think about what is the life span of your project and how long you need it to be relevant for to meet your goals for your audience. For us, the actual 35-minute audio walk has been uploaded to SoundCloud. With that you're kind of giving your power over to SoundCloud. And what if SoundCloud suddenly decides to shut down. I mean that has happened with previous digital platforms. Whereas all of a sudden people will just completely lose their projects because they're entrusting in these digital companies. We also have a website that I pay for the hosting for. It's just as long as I want to spend that money. But as well I created the project. I could have decided that oh, I really just wanted this project relevant for maybe a few weekends where I really try to get people out and doing this audio tour. But I was kind of enamoured with this idea, especially since my audio walk was really about time and about the progression of time and how we relate to time and space. I was actually quite enamored with Janet Cardiff's Her Long Black Hair in Central Park, which was made in 2004, that I did almost a decade later and it still worked. And it's still carried such grace and magic with it. I also wanted to have, I created the audio walk Southside Stories hoping that people can still do it and through the years, they can still be relevant or applicable in some ways. But that also takes a lot of maintenance. And you just really have to plan it and how much dedication you are keeping towards it and those resources that you can to keep the project updated. And then also when you decide that the project is done, whereas, I think that's a huge problem not just in audio-based tours but all digital-based projects and especially web-based projects, how you will keep that so people can reference it. But the archive is still alive in some way. Other questions. Your point about the lifespan is very, very interesting. What you talk about it seems almost analogous to the distinction between changing exhibitions in museums and how you effectively interpret the permanent collection. And while these projects are great, they're obviously costly, demanding, and can be high maintenance. And to me, I think the great need is for long-term interpretation of places that people care about. So that if you're going Newport or to anywhere, Providence, what kind of apparatus works in a long-term way so that the cost of implementing an interpretation can be kind of absorbed over many, many years. I like the idea that the project was six years. But then when you say QR codes are dying and that SoundCloud might not be there, I worry. Any responses to that? One response is that the most successful audio guide by far is the Alcatraz Audio Tour. And it survived I think three iterations of different platforms. It was first delivered on cassette tape. And then it was delivered on these rental devices and now you can get it on your phone. The big thing, to get your point about it's an important side to being able to develop something that lasts for years, to me is it the content was fascinating. It was very, very well produced. And that kept it there. Nobody wanted to see it go away as these new platforms went on because it original interviews with prisoners and guards. The second thing is that they actually retrofitted the prison itself with a walking path and with installations in specific cells that also became a part of the site. And so I think that in tandem, the content and the installations makes these things have a much stronger life of their own. I think that, and I don't mean this to be terse at all, but the best longevity, the best thing that we can do to make sure that whatever tool we're using to deliver them happens is preserve and protect your collections and your museums and your historic sites. Those are the things that have been there and will be there if we maintain them and we care for them. And the tools are going to keep changing. And the ways that people want to and need to interact with them are going to keep changing. And I think it's very important for us to stay engaged in the changing landscape of how we use and people want to experience those things. But if we lose sight of the caring for the collections and the buildings and the actual history, then we lose our ability to use whatever platforms come about. For many of us who are in the industry business, in a way it's how do we balance the time of our staff and the time of our, and the amount of our resources on caring for the physical, caring for the actual object and the people in front of us and delivering them in different ways. So I think we just have to make sure we're maintaining both at all times to be able to make sure there's a landscape for us to have fun with these different kinds of platforms. One over here. One over here. Last two questions. Last two questions. We'll do two more. I'm just wondering for these projects that have publics-- Say who you are too. --oh sure. I'm Chad Randl from Cornell University. I have a question about the way that you accommodate or address the issue of public safety in projects where you've got audiences going out, publics going out and looking at apps, putting on headphones and so on often in crowded environments full of traffic and so on. Is this an issue? Is liability an issue with any of these projects? And have you dealt with this in any way? Lawyers. The question is lawyers. So I'll just go first. I haven't dealt with any specific legal ramifications from our audio walk which takes place in a very busy urban environment where you're, the urban walker is contesting with bicycles, with cars, and there's so many different street stops throughout the walk itself. No I haven't had to deal with any kind of legal liabilities in a formal way. I haven't had, participants don't sign an agreement that they will not sue us. But when I was making the walk, I was very cognizant of how do I adapt the walk in a way where it keeps the narrative arc engaged through the actual project itself or the actual doing of the project itself. And also how to really create these navigation queues and tools that are integrated with a narrative art but also keep in mind the actual having to be safe and look across the street. And we just did a lot of testing of the walk itself before we put it out to the public of making sure that the walk was appropriately timed, that people wouldn't actually, that they were really in a safe environment. You could do a standard disclosure too, an agreement at the beginning of these tours that says by going on this tour, you agree to take all responsibility for what may happen to you. And I think it's [INAUDIBLE] So if your hands freeze on the oars. Right. Yeah, exactly. Last question over here. OK. Thank you. And this is trouble with participants. As part of your branding, have any of the panelists considered using an ecommerce add-on model? Is there something you could build on to help an institution for instance increase revenue? We've thought about that very question, of course as I mentioned earlier, when our regular tours are something that we charge for and that so people have to pay. So it's a revenue stream. The conversation at the board level in particular is are we undercutting ourselves by offering these tours for free? And that led us to that discussion of wanting to actually make sure that there were things that we could do for free and that they were distinct from what we do for free at this point. Because we want to make sure that everyone can participate. So the freeness of it was very important to many of us who were working on these projects in the early [INAUDIBLE] for our classrooms, for of the broadest use of the public. But we do know that this is something that people are concerned about especially a lot of the scholars and the smaller organizations who are saying, I want to put my time and energy into this. And we're looking for new and alternate revenue streams, what do we do? And at this point, we haven't expanded in Rhode Tour and really thought about the monetizing of this process because we're very interested in the democratizing of it at this point. But it is something that we are of course quite cognizant of. And we're thinking about ways in which we can encourage use of these platforms especially if an organization is doing it independently and, therefore, absorbing all of the costs on their own. It's not incredibly expensive. But it's not a cheap thing to do it either. So there are various platforms where you can have a, for virtual tours and for walking tours, you can have pay models. We just haven't explored it for this for the reasons of wanting it to be free. I also might look at Detour, which has commercialized the audio walk. And it seems like they're going to be really successful. Their past people who have done it. For example, it's a company called Soundwalk. And when I first started working on my project I was going research into them. And it looked like they basically shut down. I'm not entirely sure what their story is. Maybe he knows. I would definitely look at what they do on the commercial level and maybe that can also apply to how you help to monetize these projects for your institution. So we have charged for the Beacon Hill Tour. And I would say if you're planning on revenue, don't count on it. We did get I'd say a significant amount of revenue but nothing close to what it costs to build these. We got a $50,000 grant to build it. And we recouped maybe 10 or 20% of that in what we charge for downloads. We decided just to make it free because it was more important that people experienced the project than that we try to recoup some of our costs. Detour actually is absorbing the Soundwalk that they tried to charge for downloads that a very sophisticated platform that allows you to do an in-app purchase where you got a bit of the content and then you can charge to get the rest of it. And it failed. And Detour right now I think is trying to figure out a price model where they can produce these very cheaply and they charge usually 5 bucks for each of them. And I think that the jury's still out. You get a few really passionate people that give it a high rating but it doesn't cover the full costs of making it. The one thing I have seen that's very interesting, especially for people who have gift shops, is that they're are selling now very small audio devices for $10 to $15 that come with headphones. And I'm sure they're manufactured in China and they cost maybe $3 or $4 for purchase directly. And then you can load audio tours on that and package them and sell them in a gift shop for 15 to 20 bucks so people can buy something that's preloaded. Now it sounds kind of ridiculous if you could just stream it from your phone. But I've been surprised at a company in St. Louis that's actually doing fairly well selling these small disposable, you could say disposable, audio guide devices in shops. So we end with Mike. [APPLAUSE] dissertations abstracts international dai Margaret Warner Graduate School of Education and Human Development.

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