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Mini dissertation on performance management system ap capstone scholarship for money html5 reporting death Would the conference please come to order, please? It is my pleasure, once again, to welcome you to the fifth annual two-year college conference. And it is a real thrill, believe me, to look into your faces again. I think, in our office, we look forward to this conference every year with great anticipation. And I'm sure with the quality of people we have participating this year, we'll have a great conference. I would like to begin by introducing to you the members of the steering committee. And if there are any members of the steering committee who have not joined us at the podium, if they would please do so? From Utah Technical College at Salt Lake, James [INAUDIBLE], and Mrs. Anne Erickson. If you'd please just stand as I introduce you. From Utah Technical College at Provo, Dee Martin and Lucille Stoddard. I think both of these individuals are involved in budget hearings this morning, with the Board of Regents. From [INAUDIBLE] College, [? Karen ?] [? Bliss ?] and Max [? Aycock ?]. From Dixie College, Lorraine Woodbury and Peter [? Nighburg ?]. From College of Eastern Utah, Al [? Trajillo ?] and Neil Warren. And from the Office of the Commissioner, Don Carpenter. We're also delighted today to have with us-- thank you-- the new President of the College of Eastern Utah, Jim Randolph. And Faye Robinson is also with us. Faye is the President of Stevens-Henager College. And we're delighted to have Faye with us this morning. We have two other guests with us. And Dr. Roueche and Jenna Matthews, these two individuals will be introduced formally just a little later in the program. I'd like to begin by, in my presentation this morning, kind of give you a brief State of the State message as I see as it relates to higher education in the state of Utah. And I think the challenge is ours, during the exciting decade of the '80s, to provide dynamic leadership in the state of Utah, and even nationally. I think very symptomatic of our time seems to be the tendency of making institutions more management conscious, as it relates to leadership, and less and less attention is being given to that of providing dynamic leadership in our institutions of higher education. And this concerns me. And there are two different and quite antithetical ways that one can approach issues within the academy during the decade of the '80s. I think as the mercury proceeds through the aperture, will the hourglass be half full or half empty as we approach the decade of the 1990s? And that depends, in no small part, on each of us. The sceneri, as we approach the decade of the '80s, goes something like this-- the pessimistic scenario says that taxes and spending limitations are going to be imposed upon us. We're going to have greater competition for public funds from health, social welfare, crime control, public education, couple these with rampant inflation and enrollment increases. Thus, higher education is one of the discretionary items in the state budget. And it will become even more vulnerable as we attempt to compete in this unsympathetic arena for state-appropriated dollars. The optimistic scenario-- and no one would doubt that we are facing difficult times-- goes something like this-- describes the 1980s as potentially being one of the best decades in higher education. Because Utah is an energy-rich state, appropriation should continue to rise at or above inflation rates. Job opportunities for college graduates in many areas, such as the business administration, computer science, the biological sciences, engineering, agribusiness and vocational education, just to name a few, will be and remain in high demand. The unemployment rate in Utah is among the lowest in the nation. The inertia of budgeting suggests that the share of revenue for higher education is likely to remain fairly steady, except for periods of some fiscal crisis, which I want to talk about in just a moment. Nationally, between the period of 1976 and 1980, state appropriations for education grew about 2% to 3% a year more rapidly than the combination of enrollment growth and inflation. Now, this suggests to me that as colleges and universities, we're holding our own in this competition for funds. A couple of these, I think with the most important consideration of all, the fact that Utahans have always placed education at the top of the priority list, I think, really speaks optimism to each of us in the decade ahead. For a decade in higher education, there has been a mood of impending disaster for higher education. And this has been building. With a few negligible exceptions, the future is very bright, I think. Let me address a concern or two, or some of the problems that we have, as I see it, in higher education. And one that concerns me more even than that of securing adequate funds for higher education is the fact that education in this state is becoming more politicized and more polarized. It continues to become increasingly more difficult to mediate the political forces that operate in higher education. The legislature and its staff, the governor and his staff, and many other changes that are taking place, which constitute an alternate environment for higher education. And I conclude, rather candidly, that these pressures will intensify unless we, within the Academy, develop united stratagems to reverse this trend. This is not going to be easy. And it will be very difficult to accomplish. Let me give you a specific example of one of my concerns, which I think is symptomatic of our time. And that is the seeming lack of loyalty and support for the totality of higher education and what it symbolizes. More and more in the legislature and executive halls of state government, advocacy for higher education is becoming specialized and very splintered. There are advocates representing special interest groups, vocational education, nursing, the skill centers, senior citizens, and so forth. There are advocates for a special institution. There are advocates for special programs and advocates for special regional interests. But it is becoming more and more difficult to find legislators, public-minded citizens and educators who generally advocate for all aspects of higher education. And eventually we in higher education, I think, will be the losers if this disjointed approach continues. My concern leads me to conclude that through this approach, certain segments of higher education will be called upon to sacrifice more ostensibly than others. And as a result, the community of higher education and society at large will all lose. Illustrative of how we might all lose is a story that goes something like this-- two neighbors were discussing one's ability to catch fish. And the one neighbor responded by saying, simply, you arise at 4:00 AM in the morning, and I'll show you how. So the following morning, they donned their fishing gear and proceeded to the stream. While the neighbor was standing on the bank, tying a fly on this line, suddenly he became startled by a tremendous noise. And the next thing he knew, his neighbor was out in the middle of the stream filling his creel with fish. And the neighbor dropped his pole and shouted, I'm a game warden! That is against the law! You are under arrest! And Conley, the other fisherman lit another stick of dynamite and handed it to the warden, and then said, are you going to fish or are you going to just stand there? I think we in higher education really need to decide what we are going to do. I think there are a number of things that we can do in higher education to enhance our status in the political arena. And I'd like to talk to those just briefly. First and foremost, I think we must not compromise our integrity. That is our most prized possession. Integrity sustains our right to perform developmental tasks for the community, and to instruct. And it represents our greatest safeguard against governmental and private interest group intrusions in case of controversy. We cannot afford, in any way, to undermine the public's view of us as objective searchers of the truth. Second, we must make certain that each institution within the Utah system of higher education does not lose its unique identity. Each institution is fitted for some things and not for others. You must decide what things you want to be to what people. This leaves much room for innovation. And the admonition is clearly this-- not to retrench, but to reassess and to establish clarity. Third, we must not lose our capacity to criticize. Higher education cannot permit itself to be used. We can be servants. But we should not be slaves. While it is true that we are answerable to the public which we serve, we must not compromise our right to freedom to criticize those elements of our society-- the state border agents, the legislature, the Governor, the staff in the Commissioner's office, all those people. And all of us need to be looked at very carefully. And for this very purpose were we, in fact, created. Fourth, if we seek direct political power, we forfeit our right to partisan political immunity. Fifth, we must not deny our accountability. It is self denying if we forget the fact that we owe our existence to the society which created us. And finally, we must resist the temptation when looking in the mirror, typified by one of Shakespeare's quote. "When I anything else but what I am, I would wish me only as I am. Were I anything else but what I am, I would wish me only as I am." In other words, we're going to have to change in higher education. And change will be the order of the day. But we're the masters of that if we, in fact, provide dynamic leadership. Some of you may have read Gleazer's new book, Values, Vision, and Vitality, published this spring by the AACJC. After extensive field interviews with state legislators, planners, and two-year college people in '79, Gleazer found a common lament in many states that-- "Those folks in the state legislature do not understand us. There simply was not a good understanding of the kind of institutions community and technical colleges ought to become to serve individuals and communities well in the 1980s." And serving individuals and communities well is the theme for our conference today. Dr. Gleazer, who has been in his present position for 23 years, found that it's not that legislators do not know about community colleges. It's just that many legislators understand them as junior colleges, but not as community colleges. That is, the two-year institutions were known as those institutions which serve students who had just completed high school. But they were not known as community colleges. It would seem to me that during the decade of the '80s, that among the foremost considerations to which curricular matters must be addressed in this decade is the question of quality, diversity, and flexibility. If thoughtful planning and insightful leadership are not provided, the end result will be universal mediocrity. We simply must find ways to build and to reinforce quality, diversity, and flexibility, regardless of the level or the program. The sole fact of the matter is that the final responsibility for improving quality must essentially be campus based. And I've been in the Office of the Commissioner and State Planning for about almost 15 years now. And I'm becoming more convinced of that statement all the time, that if we're going to improve quality and improve instruction at the institutional level, it simply must be campus based. Only if the president, the vice presidents, the deans, the department chairmen, and each of you as a faculty member become convinced that there are tangible and intangible rewards for improving quality, only then will meaningful change occur. And if you cut programs only with the notion of the understanding that if these are cut that the funds will be taken from your base budget, then not much is going to happen. There is simply no way that external monitors, including the institutional councils, the Office of the Commissioner, the regents, the legislature, the executive branches of government can protect and enhance program quality without the active support of the colleges and universities and their faculties and administrators. At the state level, we must vigorously resist pressures to increase centralization of management and responsibility. Dealing in our planning with policy guidelines which will allow maximum flexibility for internal self determination, increased centralization does not necessarily assume reduce costs. In fact, it may even lead to rigidity in attempting to develop institutional diversity. Well, there are a number of factors that we have to deal with if we deal realistically with higher education in the decade of the '80s. Some of the more evident are the data and reports that are required by state and federal agencies, which take dollars which should be used for the improvement of instruction. Enrollment increases and decreases, the maintaining of the physical plan and acquiring new equipment, library holdings and so forth, these costs are escalating. And great shifts in program emphasis are happening within higher education. The biological sciences, for example, are up 60% nationally. Hard sciences are down. Business administration is up over 50%. The health sciences are up dramatically, and so forth. Well, we have faced many challenges as we approached the decade of the '80. And I'd like to just address two or three of those, and then introduce the theme for the conference. During the past 18 months, we have been required to cut our budgets three times, the latest encounter representing a 2.5% decrease just last week. And these continuous cats cannot be taken lightly. They do hurt. They impact, severely, institutional quality. And we must find better ways of conveying this hurt to all concerned parties. If we do not, I see no way that we can improve and even maintain the institutional quality that we now have. There is also another thrust, that of moving more toward the technical areas. And I think that there's great value in that job orientation. But I think, also, we must be very careful that in so doing, we pay attention to the humanistic sciences. Are we going to maintain the humanities or are we not? Two-- most institutions have no system for educating you, as faculty members. I sincerely believe that every administrator and every faculty member in the state should read the Chronicle of Higher Education. You ought to read this weekly to become informed on what is happening in higher education. You need to be informed, know not only of your institutional needs, but also of state and national needs. Thirdly, we must make a concerted effort to leave change to you wherever possible. Little formal dialogue has occurred addressing this issue. What could you do best by yourself? And how can we assist you? Cooperatively, we must devise ways and incentives for encouraging change at the institutional level. And lastly, if we are to merit continued support for higher education, we must be viewed by the public not as the pouting little boy being pushed away from the eternal trough, indignant because we have not received our percentage share, but we must earn the admiration of the public as bearers of the torch. Now to introduce the conference theme for this year, I would like to begin by reciting the fable of the animals school. And the source of this is unknown. Once upon a time the animals decided that they must do something heroic to meet the problems of a new world. So they organized a school. They adopted an activity curriculum consisting of running, climbing, swimming, and flying. To make it easier to administer, all the animals took all the subjects. The duck was excellent in swimming-- better, in fact, than her instructor-- and made passing grades in flying. But she was very poor in running. Since she was slow in running, she had to stay after school, and also drop swimming to practice running. This was kept up until her webbed feet were badly worn, and she was only average in swimming. But average was acceptable in school. So nobody worried about that except the duck. The rabbit started at the top of the class in running. But he had a nervous breakdown because of so much makeup work to do in swimming. The squirrel was excellent in climbing, until he developed frustration in the flying class, because his teacher made him start from the ground up instead of from the tree top down. He also discovered and developed Charley horses from overexertion and then got a C in climbing and a D in running. The eagle was a problem child and was disciplined severely. In the climbing class, he beat all the others to the top of the tree, but insisted on using his own way to get there. At the end of the year, an abnormal eel that could swim exceedingly well and also run, climb and fly a little, had the highest average a was voted valedictorian. The prairie dog stayed out of school and fought the tax levy because the administration would not add digging and burrow to the curriculum. They apprenticed their child to a badger and later joined the groundhogs and gophers to start a successful private school. Well, the point of this fable, of course, is that people are different. Students are different. And any attempt that we make to place them all in the same mold, to force all through the same curricula, or to assess individual talents and strengths by one general standard, results in overall mediocrity. And as educators, we should be the first to recognize that different students do have different needs. By the same token, we should also recognize that different educational institutions and communities they serve have different needs. Today we're very fortunate in having two widely-recognized experts present, who will help us focus on these needs-- Dr. John E. Roueche, who for years has been studying the learning abilities and habits of college students. And he will be give our keynote conference address on developmental education and the needs of college students. Dr. Jenna B. Matthews, our other participant, will focus on colleges and their communities, and will discuss how colleges can best assess and respond to the needs of the community they serve. During this past year, the AACJC Board of Directors adopted a new mission statement. And it reads like this-- "The mission of AACJC is to organize national leadership and services for individual and community development through lifelong education." This key phrase, "individual and community development through lifelong education," I think is worth our attention as we think about the decade ahead for the two-year colleges in our state. Utah's three rural community colleges, of course, were really created as junior colleges long before the large state community college systems now existing across the country were developed. But like community colleges elsewhere, Dixie, Snow, and College of Eastern Utah, and the Technical College at Salt Lake and the one at Provo have extended educational opportunities to disadvantaged, to low achievers, to women, to older students, to the working students and the minorities, and other groups of students who had not been traditional college enrollees in the past. I believe, however, that much more can be done to extend educational advantages to persons along the Wasatch Front as well as rural Utah, who may not perceive themselves as college or university students. But who nonetheless could benefit greatly from post-secondary education if offered to them in convenient and appropriate ways. Community and technical colleges, by philosophy and commitment, are well equipped to provide such education. And while we are doing well, there remain many students in our state who are either unserved or underserved. Our two-year colleges have, nonetheless, found a large clientele for services to nontraditional college attenders. Like other community-based colleges, [? Yerington ?] points out that we have seen two rather ironical developments. First, while we have taken on the most difficult of higher education's challenges and successes-- that of educating all-- we are being criticized for not having done well by traditional measures. And second other institutions, which a few years ago would not have touch these educational assignments, now want them badly. And we see, even within our own state, many of the colleges, the four-year colleges and the universities seeking to add vocational programs, even at the lower-division level, and to diversify their program offerings to attract students. And we see a new interest in continuing education emerging at all levels of higher education. I think again, paramount to all of these considerations, as that of the needs of students and of employees in the communities which we serve. Program competition is a traditional measure that we have used and has been used by educational planners and by analysts and legislators and others. But it may have less meaning to students and employers than skills, knowledge, and competencies acquired. Many older and non-typical students need employment now. Many have family responsibilities and attend part time while working. Some will drop in and out from quarter to quarter, or enroll one year and then be absent the next. If they are to be served well and receive the kind of education and training they seek, they will view our institutions as local educational resources. We can expect to see them return to our campuses for additional training, skill upgrading, and new knowledge, not merely during the first year or two following high school graduation. Some programs of study, of course, such as nursing, require completion before employment can be obtained, while others like secretarial science, building construction, or auto mechanics may not require completion for satisfactory employment. In fact, many students may not have completion as a goal when they enter such programs. The closer we look at community needs, the more we may subscribe to the notion of the community renewal college. This has been defined by Harlacher, Roberts, and others in this way-- "The community renewal college delivers the kind of education community members want and need, not what pedagogues think is good for them. It does so at locations where the learners are, not where conventional college organization indicates they should be. It is guided by open community participation in defining comprehensive learning needs, suggesting solutions, and facilitating delivery, not by the decisions of professional educators and governing boards alone. As it is now emerging, the community renewal college is both learning and community oriented. It is no longer merely a giver to those who are inclined to accept its gifts. Instead, its role is that of cooperation with the community in joint efforts to put people back together in meaningful human endeavors. It is a college that takes an active role in the renewal of its constituencies. It constantly avails itself of opportunities to participate in the continual renewal of individuals. And this, in the continual restructuring of the community as a whole, it is a true people college not confined to the campus, but decentralized and flourishing in the real world of the total community." I'd like to conclude with a quote from John Gardner in his book titled Self Renewal. "The ultimate goal of the educational system is to shift to the individual the burden of pursuing his own education. This will not be a widely-shared pursuit until we get over our odd conviction that education is what goes on in school buildings and nowhere else. The world is an incomparable classroom. And life is a memorable teacher for those who are not afraid of her." I look forward to the presentations this morning, and also to the chance to interact with our speakers and with each of you during the day. Thank you very much. [APPLAUSE] It is my pleasure now to introduce to you Neil Warren, a member of the steering committee, and a faculty member at the College of Eastern Utah. And he will introduce our keynote speaker. Let me first encourage all of those who are standing in the back, we've reserved some terrific seats right down front here. Please come down. I'm certain that most of us have at least heard of our featured speaker. Most of those who are really interested in helping our students have read much of what he has written. Perhaps some of us have only read the quotation, the theme for the conference on our booklets. Others have had a chance to read the article that was included in your program folder. Very interesting article, or part of one. "Let's get serious about the high-risk student." Fantastic. Let me read with you the program notes on Dr. Roueche, so that you will be a little better acquainted with him. Jon E. Roueche is professor and director of the program in community college education at the University of Texas at Austin. He is the principal investigator for more than $1.8 million in grants from the WK Kellogg Foundation, FIPSE and NIE. He is a prolific writer, with over 100 journal articles and books. He's latest-- and if you haven't, do read it-- Holistic Literacy in College Teaching, which seeks to provide answers to many problems faced by community college teachers. That's us. The AACJC Council of Universities and Colleges awarded him the 1978 Outstanding Research Award for his book, Overcoming Learning Problems, another must on your reading list. The National Institute for Staff and Organizational Development, which he directs, comprises a national network of over 100 institutions committed to the professional growth of teachers and administrators. Well, the conference planning committee has tried for several years now to get Dr. Roueche to Utah, and to share his experiences and his abilities with us. I'm sure the two-year delay has only heightened our expectations. It's a pleasure, then, to welcome to Utah, and to our two-year conference for improving the quality of instruction, Dr. Roueche. [APPLAUSE] I'm glad to find a literate faculty member. That's very good. You read very well, Neil. I really enjoyed that. I would also like to invite all of you in the back to come on down and get some of these A and B seats that are left. We've even got one college president on the front row. So I'm really excited about that. Marvin, it's good to see you again. How are you? I went to college during the '50s. In fact, it was exactly 20 years ago this year that I graduated with a baccalaureate. And thinking about my graduation and how times have changed brought to mind a story I would like to share with you. Because during the '50s, going to college was mostly fun. It was before the days of accountability. It was before the days of Howard Jarvis. It was before the days of NCHEMS-- Jenna-- taxpayers revolts, data collection, so forth and so on. And mostly in college, those of us who were students had two primary activities. One was the old social custom of dating. Some of you probably remember that. Some of you older folks remember dating, when boys and girls would go out together and have fun. We did a lot of that in the '50s. And secondly, we played a lot of bridge. And the only skill I know for sure I developed in college was at the bridge table. I put together 26 master points as an undergraduate, and got through 3 and 1/2 years mostly of dating and playing bridge. When about Thanksgiving of my senior year, I was summoned to the Dean's office. Now, you see right away, that tells you it was a long time ago. Because let's face it, today's deans don't have that kind of power. You see, today's dean would send a courier to see if the student and his attorney might be willing to meet in some neutral spot and discuss whatever the difficulty might be. And my colleagues in the law school at Texas tell me that with due process and appeal rights and so forth, that a student today would be 34 years old before he'd ever had to see a dean. See? But in my day, deans had enormous power. And they wielded it unmercifully. So I made my way down to Dean Setzer's office. He was a little bulldog of a man. And sitting it his outer office was my bridge partner, Benny Creed. And Benny looked at me. And he said, what have we done now? We'd been there before, you see. I said, I don't know, Benny. The dean came out. He said, Roueche, you and Creed get in here. And we got in. He said, sit down. We sat down. He got behind his desk and opened a huge folder. And he said, you boys are shy. Now, Benny and I knew immediately that the dean was not describing personality characteristics. We'd been the see him lots of times. And shyness was never a term he'd used in describing our behavior. He went on to define shy as deficient, and aloud as how Benny and I had undertaken more hours for credit then we had earned quality points. You understand that situation? Well, I was moved by that. And I said, Dean Setzer, and he said, what is it, Roueche? I said, what are the implications of this situation? He said, they're damn severe, son. He said, somehow, if you and Benny can't make a B in this college some way next semester, you simply won't graduate. Well, Benny and I left with a fantastic educational challenge. Because no one in our company made B's. In fact, Benny and I doubted that B's were even possible in that particular college. After checking the catalog, it said if you were good, you could make a B. So at least we knew, theoretically, it was possible. But we also had decided that if you had to make a B, you needed to be very careful in your assessment of the requirements of the curriculum to make sure that you got into a course where a B was possible, especially given the lifestyle Benny and I had grown accustomed to. So we made out a list of criteria to be considered. I will share those with you in a few moments. And then we started through the curriculum. I remember very well the first department we came to was the Department of Accounting. And without hesitating, we moved very quickly right on past Accounting. And we came to the Department of Anthropology, which we moved quickly past. Art, pretty soon into Biology, and Business, Chemistry, Economics, Finance, French, German, Geology, all the things. And we're halfway through the catalog. Benny grabbed my hand. He said, you know we're halfway through the catalog. We haven't looked at a single course. I said, don't worry, Benny. We turned right into Journalism, from Journalism to Mathematics, Physics, and Physical Education. The curriculum only had two pages left, when we came up on the Department of Religion. It just has a wonderful sound, doesn't it, religion? Well, I had been to Sunday school as a small boy and had always been impressed with religious teachings. I thought the notion of 'tis more blessed to give than receive was really a neat teaching. And the one that had particularly captured me as an undergraduate was the teaching of loving your neighbor as yourself. I had devoted much of my undergraduate experience to that particular teaching. And I had this tremendous image, you see, of anyone who could profess religion. I figured the professor must be a warm, kind, loving, charitable, tolerant, unbelievably forgiving human being, see? So we decided to look at the course offerings. The first course was a course called Ethics. And not knowing exactly what Ethics meant, Benny and I moved on to Course 102, which was a course called the Old Testament. And you know students don't like old content. So we moved to the third course, which was much more exciting. It was a course called the New Testament. See? And that sounds new and recent and relevant. So Benny and I got out our list of things to be considered. And the first requirement we had for the course was we wanted an experienced professor. That was an absolute requirement. Two reasons for that-- we didn't want somebody right out of graduate school trying to teach in one three-hour undergraduate course what they had spent 36 hours learning in a master's program somewhere. But mostly, we wanted a professor who had been at the college long enough that we might look at his past behavior and predict his future actions in the course. Well, the teacher for this course, the New Testament, was one Dr. Rudicell. And he had been at the college 52 consecutive years. Benny and I checked that off. We thought that was pretty significant. 52 years was enough experience. Secondly, we wanted a course where there was a very flexible policy of attendance. Some of you don't understand that, I see. Dr. Rudicell had only peripheral vision. He could see either side of him very well, because he could see nothing in front of him. And he stumbled over trees and so forth on campus. But he never called the role. That was pretty flexible. So Benny and I checked that off. And the third requirement was we wanted some stability in the evaluation procedures of the class. We didn't want a lot of unpredictable capricious behavior on the part of the teacher. Well, it turned out, Dr. Rudicell-- God love him-- had given the same identical final examination question every semester for 52 consecutive years. And Benny and I agreed you couldn't get more stable than that. And the question had always been, discuss the travels of the Apostle, Paul. Well, Benny and I signed up for the course. We went to class, I don't know, three or four times, seems to me. Yeah, we sat on the front row. And we smiled at Dr. Rudicell. We said Amen at appropriate points in his sermon, which he called a lecture. Then Benny and I played bridge. I fact, my next memory of that class was during the college-wide bridge tourney that May. And we were playing for the college championship, which we had won a couple of times. I was in the middle of this heart finesse, when Benny, my partner, said to me, I just had a terrible thought. That was normally Benny's cue to me that I was finessing the wrong way. And I said, what was it, Benny? He said, I just can't remember. Who it was this guy, Paul? We were finessing the wrong way, and went down two. Of course, we didn't know who Paul was. Some of the other students said Paul was an early missionary, traveled all over the Mediterranean area. And as far as we could pick up, he had only two primary activities. He built churches everywhere. And he wrote letters to everybody. And later on, when I got in the university, I found that Paul published all of his letters. He had a tremendous [INAUDIBLE] of published writings. We said, where can we find out about this guy? And they said, well, you need to get a Bible so you can do a little reading on where Paul travelled. And of course, Benny and I didn't have a Bible. And we said, where do you get one of those? And they directed us to the library. Well, Benny knew where the library was. He had gone through freshman orientation, you see, and had picked up where the library was. Well, those of you who went to college during the '50s remember that librarians had one overriding goal during the '50s-- keep kids away from books. And outside our library, there were dobermans all around, so that only the most serious student could make his way into the library. And then once you got in the library-- now remember, you couldn't see books. All you could see were lead walls. And the way you got a book in a library was by filling out a call slip with the title, the author and the call number. And the way you got that call number was by going to the card catalog and finding the number in the library, and then would go get the book for you. And see, that was good. Because if students had access to the books, they might check some out or read them or something really bad. Well, Benny and I were in the card catalog, looking for this book, the Holy Bible. And we knew the author. Somebody told us it was a guy named James King. We'd already been over that. Yeah. We knew we had that down. Well, the librarian was a wonderful lady named Sally Bondurant. And she saw Benny and me there in the lobby and wept openly. She was about 100 years old and she just couldn't contain herself and was so pleased to see us. And she was reinforcing us a great deal. And we said, Mrs. Bondurant, we really need some help. We're trying to get this book. And we got an exam a day after tomorrow. Bless her heart, being a sharp, discerning, very talented lady, it only took her about 15 minutes to realize we had the names reversed and it was really a King James we were looking for. Well, Mrs. Bondurant put the call number down, got the book, brought it back. Book was all dusty, so forth. Benny and I looked at it. It had last been checked out in 1905, by Dr. Rudicell. [LAUGHTER] Well, for a brief shining moment, Benny and I thought of A's. We thought of A's. We had a tremendous resource there at our disposal. And Dr. [INAUDIBLE] had underlined. He'd written amen and so forth, at appropriate points. And old Benny and I went back to the dorm, read all night. We read all of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus. We were deep into Deuteronomy when the sun came up. And not a single reference to this guy Paul. Nothing. In fact, Paul was not beget anywhere in those chapters. Well, some of the students told us we'd been reading the old stuff and that we should get into the new stuff. And so we got the right chapters down. Then we went to the bookstore and bought a biblical gazetter. Showed every place old Paul traveled, what Holiday Inn he stayed in, who the innkeeper was, what letters he wrote, the whole bit. Benny and I flipped for the gazetter after we finally got out of school. And I've still it, in fact, at the house. We stayed up all night the night before the exam. And I know that's probably very unusual behavior for all of you. But when the sun came up the next morning, we were very confident. Because we could place Paul anywhere, on the road from Rome to Macedonia, at any point in his career. We went to class, took a seat. Dr. Rudicell walked in, greeted the class, went to the chalkboard and wrote up these words-- "Criticize the Sermon on the Mount." I had never heard of the Sermon on the Mount. I tried praying, which seemed like an appropriate activity. It did not work, however. And being a pragmatist, I looked around to see if anybody around me was writing anything of value, and they were not. So I wrote Dr. Rudicell-- in today's language-- a warm humanistic feedback report. And I told him what a beautiful example of Christ-like behavior he was for all of us students, and how someday I hoped I could be the kind of human being that I thought him to be and so forth. And for the love me, I couldn't remember that particular sermon, and guessed I would have to learn more about it later. I did learn a great deal more about it in summer school that summer. But by this time, most everybody in the class was gone. I suppose eight or nine minutes had elapsed. And I turned around. Most everybody was gone. And I turned my paper in, started up the aisle. And there was my buddy, Benny, only one left in the class writing, furiously. Benny wrote for three hours. Got his paper back, made an A-plus. Dr. Rudicell wrote wonderful things all over his paper and said, Mr. Creed, it is obvious you possess deep theological insights into the teachings of our Lord. It is obvious you're being called into service. Well, of course, Benny had to build where he had some success, only A he'd ever made. So we went on to the Lutheran Theological Seminary and is today a literal pillar in the Lutheran Church of North America. Well, I knew something was funny. Because see, Benny didn't even finesse real good, let alone possess any deep theological insights. So I said, Benny, could I see your paper? He said, of course. He still carries it. I saw him in New York about three years ago. He still had that same paper right there. He pulled it out. Only A he'd ever made. So he pulled it out and there it was, "Criticize the Sermon on the Mount," answer by Benjamin T. Creed Junior. And Benny's paper read this way-- "Let those who will criticize the words of our Lord and Savior. As for me, I will discuss the travels of the Apostle, Paul." [LAUGHTER] It's probably appropriate to say, that Benny understood the real objectives of the course. I was speaking to a group very similar to yours in Kentucky, about three years ago. It was the statewide meeting of the Community College System Faculty in Kentucky. And I was telling that story. And there was a lady on about the third row, getting more and more agitated and more and more upset the further I got into that story. And I figured she must be Billy Graham's grandmother or something, you know? Or I was offending her sense of religious propriety. Anyway, at the end of the session, she made her way up on stage. And she finally came over and got right in front of me. And she said, Mr. Roueche, I am just very upset with you for telling that story. I said, I really hope you didn't take it too seriously. It was a little fun. And a lot of it's true. And I really didn't mean to offend your values. She said, that has nothing to do with it. She said, Benny Creed is my nephew. She said, Benny was a wonderful student. And I said, not the old Benny I know, wasn't a wonderful student. It really is good to be with you. And I suppose probably at no time in recent history have we, in higher education, have we in the community college [INAUDIBLE], been faced with greater challenges than we're likely to face in the decade ahead. I think Leon's overview summarized very well some of the issues, some of the lack of support, some of the greater expectations that all of us are going to be faced with. And it's going to be a very trying and a very difficult decade for a lot of reasons. One is-- and this may not happen in your state, as it may not happened in Texas. But we're going to lose, from American public high schools, between now and 1990, over two million high school graduates a year. And what that means is, that colleges that have looked primarily to the recent high school graduate to populate freshman and sophomore classes are going to be in big trouble. Now, the Carnegie Commission predicts that many, many four-year colleges, many liberal arts colleges, many private colleges will, in fact, go under during this decade. Many public colleges are merging. Many states are today looking at the merger of public institutions as a way of dealing with the projected decline of enrollees over the next 10 years. Perhaps even worse than that-- from my standpoint-- and an issue to which I would like to speak with you today, is the sad reality that most of today's learners in American colleges and universities simply cannot read, write, speak, listen, study, or figure well enough to pursue any of the classes you're likely to teach next week. We're finding today-- in a major project we're conducting for the National Institute on Education, we're into the third year of five-year longitudinal study-- that the average high school graduate in this country today leaves high school with a B or a B-plus average. That's the average, is a B or a B-plus. And yet, that student is likely to be reading below the eighth-grade reading level at the time of his graduation. I was talking this morning with Don coming in. I don't know if those data would be true in Utah or not. Because your state at least has the reputation out of the state of having an excellent public school system. But we're finding in state after state where we are conducting literacy studies, that the average student in the community college setting on entry reads below the eighth-grade reading level. In fact, we're also finding that the most selective universities in this country-- I'm talking about the University of California, Berkeley. I'm talking about Stanford, Ohio State, the University of Texas at Austin-- we began three weeks ago, our fall term. And we have enrolled, so far this fall, 7,000 students in our reading and study skills laboratory program. Most of those are students with B averages and SAT scores in excess of 1100 who, upon entry, do not score well enough on our reading and writing placement test to begin freshman English 101. The University of California will offer, next week, 400 sections of bonehead English to the nation's most talented and gifted students. And Stanford University is planning to enroll 5,000 students next week in it's Learning Assistance Center. 70% of those students are valedictorians, salutatorian graduates of the nation's finest prep schools. So when I talk today about a loss of literacy, it's not a regional problem. It is not a problem that the high schools are today serving more students, and more students are graduating today than was true 20 years ago. We know that's true. But we also know that the best students today from American public schools are not prepared to begin college-level work. And I suspect that, to some extent, is a problem you're dealing with and will have to deal with in this state-- maybe next week, and certainly for the rest of this decade. The challenge is for the college is how can you be an open-door institution, and yet maintain the quality that college-level work should indicate and signify to all of your supporters. And I think the point that you made about keeping integrity and keeping quality is an absolute must. I'm convinced today that many colleges, in order to accommodate the learning needs of students who've been admitted have, in fact, watered down college curricula so that students who read at the eighth and ninth-grade reading level can, in fact, get through an associate degree. It's tragic because the student may be as a illiterate with the associate degree as they were illiterate with a high school diploma. And I really want to urge you not to do that. Not to do that, for whatever motivation. Do not lower your standards. The problem we face is one of building a foundational program at the college level. And that's a controversial subject. For example, most legislators-- and I'm sure it's true in your state-- believe that colleges should not be in the business of remedial or developmental education. And I agree with that philosophically. I agree with it as a parent. I agree with it as an educator. But the sad reality is that public schools are not promoting and developing literacy. And we are in a bind of having to admit students who don't begin to have the academic preparation to begin our courses. And we're literally between a rock and a hard place. The fastest-growing courses in American colleges this year, folks, are Remedial English, followed by Remedial Reading, followed by Remedial Mathematics, followed by Remedial Study Skills. In fact, this last year I spent three days at Princeton, helping Princeton University design a developmental education program for its students. Can you believe that? What are colleges doing? Well, let me talk about some things in four areas. And I'm going to have to move quickly. But the first thing is colleges, and especially community colleges, need drastically to revise educational procedures and policies if we are really to assist the students who come to us. Let me mention several. First of all, it is imperative that community colleges, technical colleges begin to assess student academic skills at the point of the student's enrollment into the institution. When I was deaning in community colleges 15, 18 years ago, you knew that the student's grade point average was the best single indicator predictor of his success at the college level. It is no longer indicative and/or predictive of anything in an open-door institution. Because I've just told you, they've got a B average and can't read. SAT scores, ACT scores are not indicative of high-level literacy. More and more colleges are having to devote time in pre-admission and registration to at least assessing student reading readiness, take the time to give the Nelson-Denny reading test or something similar. Reading is absolutely the key in the academic scene. If the student doesn't read well, they don't write well. They don't speak well. And in all likelihood, they probably have deficient study skills. And they're probably behind in quantitative subjects as well. The second thing that colleges are going to have to do besides committing to early assessment is to use those data obtained in that assessment to help students make appropriate educational decisions. It is important to keep students out of classes until they have demonstrated they have the prerequisite skills to be there. And I'm talking about tough directive guidance and counseling to put students into developmental compensatory programs if you discover they are deficient in basic academic skills. I do not believe that students have the right to fail in college. I believe they have the right to succeed in college, and that our job as professionals is to be deadly honest with them at the point of their enrollment about the reality of their situation as it applies to college-level work. We have identified, in the last two years, more than 25 community colleges in this country that now have better than 85% and 90% student retention through the freshman year with high achievement. And the one thing they all have in common are sets of educational policies that help students keep from committing educational suicide. The third policy I want to mention to you-- and I know this is one that's real-- is that more and more community college students are working 30 hours plus a week. That's true nationally. It's true because the average student today is 29 years of age. And the projections are that average age in our institutions will continue to go up over the decade of the '80s. These students are parents. They're working. They had bread to buy and rent to pay. Working is not an option for them. It is an absolute requisite. And what we should do for those working students is to counsel them strongly on entry not to bite off more than they can chew in our setting. Those students working 30 hours a week should be limited the first semester to no more than nine academic units of work. They simply can't carry 15 and 18 hours of academic work at the quality levels you should insist upon and work 30 hours a week somewhere off campus. Last year nationwide in American community colleges, 45% of all the final grades earned by students in our colleges were X grades and Q grades and IP grades and I grades and W grades and D's and F's. In other words, last year, half of all our clients failed to complete the courses for which they enrolled with a passing grade. And when you analyze those data, it's obvious that the student signed up for five classes in September. By Thanksgiving, realized she was behind in all five, and began bailing out of two or three courses toward the end the semester to concentrate time and energy to pass one or two. Well, we're much better advised to give students good advice-- tough advice if we have to-- early on, to keep them from buying into more courses than they can possibly handle. We really are going to have to do a better job as students enroll in our colleges in finding out what their skills levels are, and placing them in appropriate curricula based on that discovery. Now, I'm not saying that assessment should be used to screen students out of curricula. That's not it at all. I know many colleges where students who come and say, I want to be a nurse. I want to pursue the AD nursing program. The college says, you are accepted into nursing. And you're accepted as soon as you meet these prerequisites for the nursing program. That is, that assessment is not used to screen students out of preferred curricula. Rather, the student is accepted into the preferred curricula as soon as prerequisites are met. There's nothing new out of the ordinary about my recommendation. Colleges have insisted upon prerequisites since time immemorial. And literacy quantitative literacy are absolute prerequisites in college. Policies and procedures-- look at yours. Open-door college should not mean open access to the curriculum unless you want high attrition and low achievement. The second area I want to speak about briefly has to do with curriculum. Sidney Drumheller, the great psychologist at Harvard, says that "90% of all the content learned by people in school at any level is gone forever within six months after the close of the course. It is not stored away in some imaginary computer data bank in the back of your head to be retrieved as soon as somebody pushes the right button." Drumheller says that "Forgetting, choosing not to remember, is as conscious an act as is remembering." And he says that 90% of all the content learned in school is gone forever because mostly what we teach in school has absolutely no application utility and/or relevance or value in the life of the learner. And Drumheller's admonition to all of us who teach-- and that's what I do, by the way-- is to make very, very thoughtful decisions about the value of our content every time we walk into the classroom. And Drumheller says, if we as teachers aren't excited, enthused about curriculum as we began to teach the hour, not only will all of our students know that, but we're likely to teach them something else. We're likely to teach them that we're wasting their time and that school is more of the same old learning things that have no value and application in life. I want to tell you one story, I think, to illustrate that point. Several years ago, I was called by a college, a large technical college in the south, by the math department to come and explore with them a very high attrition rate. Their attrition in math had been in excess of 60% for two or three years. The president had motivated the faculty to explore the causes of that attrition by explaining to them that unless the student attrition were reduced, faculty numbers would be reduced also. So the faculty were all motivated. And they were very excited about why students were leaving. They had conducted their own dropout study. And they found that all the students who withdrew from the math courses did so for good reasons. They got married, joined the army, left the area, took a job. They were stop outs, they thought. You'll always find that with that kind of study. Tom Caudill, the Chairman of Psychiatry at Harvard says, that "Failing is unacceptable in this society." how many times in your life have you ever met somebody who said, I failed? Or how many times have you ever heard anybody say, it was really my fault? See? Failing is not an OK thing in our society. At this college, we went to the teachers of record in the math department and said, what was the student's final mark in this class when they quit coming? Guess what we found? 95% of all the student who attrited-- that's my word for the year, attrited-- were failing mathematics at the point of their departure. People who succeed in college rarely leave. The ones in academic trouble, for the most part, are those who leave us. Well, then we went to the math faculty and said, tell us about the curriculum offerings in mathematics. All the students in this college took the same Math 101 and 102 sequence. The Chairman reflected. He said, well, the first nine weeks in our math course we cover quadratics. Now, you remember quadratics, don't you? You use it in your daily life, don't you? Huh? Quadratics has to do with your ability to discern the values of unknown quantities, should you ever want to do that. And I said, how many of your students at the college are in curricula that can ever use, build upon, require quadratics? He thought for a moment. He said, every student going to calculus will need quadratics. I learned that was true because I took calculus in college. And I used and applied quadratics there. What I could never figure out was what to do with calculus, when I got through with that. I said, how many students are going to calculus? He said, about 10%, 12%. I said, how many other students can use quadratics? He thought a moment. He said, our hydraulics program requires quadratics. I later found out that was true. He had about 5% of his students in quadratics. And I said, can you think of any other group of students who take your Math 101 class who could never use, one time, think about, apply quadratics? He said, I can't think of any. I said, you've got a problem. He said, what's that? I said, trying to motivate students to learn content when you, yourself, can think of no value for it. You got to be fantastic to do that, folks. Well, that afternoon I met with all of the technical instructors at the college. And I said, tell me about this general math course all of your students have to take. And the first response was those SOBs. Now, that's a Texas term that means Sweet Old Boy in Texas. I don't know what it means in your part of the country. And the Dean of Technology said, our students have to take math courses. But mostly, the math faculty wipe out our students. And those that survive Math 101 don't learn math they need in our particular field. And we have to use lab and shop time to get our students proficient in the math applications they require over here. Now, my point is, it was a losing proposition for everybody. Students weren't doing well. The math faculty were unhappy because they have high attrition and low motivation. And all of these support areas, all of the major curriculum areas that relied on math to develop quantitative proficiencies were unhappy and feeling that the math faculty were not serving their students well. That afternoon, with all of the technology faculty present with the math faculty, we had more than 300 algebraic applications written on chalkboards in a two-hour period. Math that was essential that was required, that was highly applicable immediately in all those cognate fields. And the math faculty said, golly, boy, if we had known all this early we could have maybe targeted some of the math applications. So you see what I'm saying? We need to be doing that kind of very careful curriculum planning and development in our kinds of colleges. Because next week, friends, the skills problem I talked about earlier is minor compared to the attitude problems that many of your students will bring with them. Because many of them have learned to hate to read. Many of them do not like English. And many of them don't feel they're very good in mathematics. And one of the neatest things you can do is to have them see that those generic skills-- verbal skill, study skills, quantitative skills-- do, in fact, have application in our everyday life. Some of you are saying well, we're in the humanities. We're in the social sciences. Drumheller's notion there is just as valid. He said that the task of all of us who teach is to teach content to students so that the student can see the value to the student. Malcolm Knowles, the father of adult education in our society, says that for all of us teaching adults today, we've simply got to rid ourselves of the notion of student, and imbue ourselves with a notion of learner. And Knowles defines a learner as an individual who learns content that's perceived to be of value and interest to the learner. And a student is an individual who learns content that's perceived to be of interest and value to the teacher. Are you with me? And no matter what mountain peak you want your students to climb this particular semester, you'd better find out something about them and their interest, and try and build your courses around content of perceived value to them. One of the most exciting programs I've ever seen in a college setting was in a prison in Alabama, where a retired elementary school principal took a voluntary group of prisoners-- third term offenders, by the way-- and built that program to more than 500 in a two-year period of time with average increases in reading skills of three and four grade levels a year. And I said to her, how in the world can you accomplish that with this group of students? She said, I don't know anything about reading. I wouldn't know syntax from rhetoric. I've never had a course in it in my life. But I know if you can give students content of interest and value to them, they will read it. And in the process, they will discover that reading has meaning and value in their lives. The book she started with, with all those prisoners, was Eldridge Cleaver's Soul on Ice. And they read that book. And they reread that book. And in that book, Cleaver ponders why it is that black and brown people go to jail in America and white people rarely do. And he ponders why it is that poor people in America go to jail, and wealthy people rarely do. But mostly the book's about all of the emotion, all of the anger, the hostility, the sadness, the loneliness, the fear of a human being in jail. And those men read that book. They reread that book. She introduced them to the autobiography of Malcolm X, the writings of James Baldwin, LeRoi Jones, and others. The average prisoner read 30 books a year in that program. And second-year students in her program were reading Victor Hugo's Les Miserables. You remember that book. It's about a dude during the French Revolution, Jean Valjean. And he robbed a 7/11 store. Remember that? And they sent him off to jail. He robs a bakery and he's sent to the galleys. And he's wondering throughout the book about the highest obligation of a human being in this life. Is it to obey moral and civil laws of not stealing? Or is it to take care and protect those near and dear to you? She got them to mountaintop experiences by being smart enough to realize if she could ever have them discover that reading had meaning and value in their lives, it would serve them well. Some of those prisoners read Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment. Many of them got into law books and psychology books. She turned them on to their own learning. I challenge you to have that as an overriding goal for your own teaching. I hope that for each of you in this room, that students leave your class in December or January more excited and more committed to their own growth and development than when they start with you next semester. The third area is instruction. Policies, procedures, second's curriculum, third's instruction. There's no method of teaching best suited for all students. I've seen community colleges over the last decade go off the deep end with the bits and pieces of teaching. I was at a college three weeks ago in Michigan. The Dean called me into his office, showed me five locked file cabinets and said, guess what I've got in there? They'd been through collective bargaining last year and I figured you he had confidential dossiers on all the faculty. He said, no. He said, we've got objectives. He said, they're all behavioral objectives. They're all in performance and competency terms. I kept waiting. He said, we made them do it. He said, we insisted that they do it. He was waiting for a stroke. And I finally, said, Dean? He said, yes? What do you do with them? He said, what do you mean? I said, who looks at them? Who reviews them? Are you training technical faculty members, looking to see that the communication skills called for in your English classes are reflective of the kinds of competencies in the verbal areas they wish in their trade and technical programs? Are advisory committees in your trade and technical programs reviewing those objectives to see that the competencies called for are the ones they want in initial employees? Who's looking to see if the test items being written by the teachers reflect, in any way, the competences called for in the objectives? He said, well, we hadn't thought about all that. And you see, my point is writing an objective is only step 1A in ever thinking about designing anything. And many, many colleges went down the path, if we could just somehow all write objectives, we'll do wonderful and great things. And I'm not opposed to writing objectives. I think it's neat to know what it is you're trying to accomplish. But I've seen colleges go off the deep end with mediated teaching. I've seen them go off the deep end with cognitive mapping. The idea is if we can just map everybody's cognitive, boy, we'll do some wonderful, wonderful work this semester. You see, the truth is, in teaching, you've got to be doing everything right to be dramatically successful with the kinds of students we have in community colleges. And I want to tell you a story that illustrates that point. In 1973, we were funded at the University of Texas by the National Science Foundation, to put on a workshop for 100 community college science teachers, teaching them how to-- in those days we used individualized, systematized instruction. I'm sure today we'd use the words personalized or humanized. We keep playing around with jargon to find something that might connote goodness to people in the field. We brought all of these teachers to Austin. We taught them how to write objectives. We introduced them to computer-assisted instruction. We introduced them to audio tutorial, to modules, packages and the like, and so forth. The chemistry faculty from one large college in our state came to the workshop. They repented of past sins in teaching, were baptized and converted to our new technology. And we were delighted. They went back to the college, and they completely revitalized freshman chemistry. In fact, they built a chemistry program at the college that was key to performance objectives. And it featured-- as a learning style-- computer-assisted instruction. It also had audio tutorial, packaged instruction, and retained traditional lab and lectures. Fred Keller, the father of PSI, flew in from Arizona, and pronounced it holy. He said, it's just fantastic. They got grants from the National Science Foundation and the like. Wonderful things were happening. Two years ago this fall, the dean of that college called me, a salty old Texan. And they he said, John-- six syllables, say John-- he said, do you know how we sent the chemistry faculty up there about five years ago to learn how to teach better from you? I said, you sure did, Dean. What a great group of men they were. And what a great group of faculty. I know your pleased. I was reinforcing him, by the way. Deans need a lot of reinforcement. Do that to your deans. They don't get much. He said, John, you know how this faculty came back here and bled me and this college out of a third of a million dollars in hardware and technology to implement all those ideas? And I explained to him, that's what administration was for, was to find resources to support teaching. And he, in fact, had done a great job. He said, thank you. He said, there's only one problem, John. I said, what's that, Dean? He said, it don't work. That college, for 10 years, had been looking at student attrition by division, by department, by course, by instructor. And the attrition rate in Chemistry 101 at the college had been 50% for a long time. And it was that high attrition that had motivated the dean to send the chemistry faculty to our workshop to start with. And since coming back and installing all of this highfalutin technology, the attrition rate had not been reduced at all. He said, maybe we're not doing something right. Would you come down and take a look at it? And I was motivated to do that. I knew he would tell everybody that it didn't work, and it would affect book sales and all kinds of things. So I went down. Spent a day with the chemistry faculty. They didn't know what was wrong. And best of all, they were really concerned that students weren't doing better in their classes. Now, that's a good sign. When you have faculty members concerned about students' performance, you're in good shape. When faculty aren't concerned about student performance, you're in trouble. Well, at the end of the day, I was more perplexed than ever. I'd never seen a better chemistry program in my life. I'd never seen a more exciting curriculum. I'd never seen instruction designed any better. And at the end of the day, I was completely mystified. I stayed over the next morning, for the beginning of school. They had a teaching auditorium a little larger than this room. They must have had 400 students in it. They all came in. The chairperson came out, greeted the students. Told a few anecdotes about chemistry. And then the lights dimmed. And they cut on a three-screen multimedia multi-sensory extravaganza entitled "You and the World of Chemistry." And it was fantastic. The music was from Patton, the movie, Patton. Boy, I mean to tell you. And it was about body chemistry, and how body chemistry affects the thought process and how you're feeling affects your behavior, and what you can do with nutrition and good exercise and taking care of yourself to prolong your life and be better functioning. Everything was of immediate interest to those students. The lights came back on. Chairman came up, kind of a relaxed atmosphere in the room. And he said, well, folks, I guess there's only one other thing I need to say to you today. And that is many of you people will not do well in chemistry. And he continued. He said, chemistry is an unbelievably cognitive highly intellectual subject, requiring academic skills the likes of which, frankly, most of you do not possess. And he went on to say that in his 10 years at the college, no more than half the students could pass chemistry. And he advised them to take English or History, something with no cognitive base. I think it took 30 seconds. I wasn't expecting it. But I think it took 30 seconds for him to say that. And in 30 seconds, friends, he'll obliterated, destroyed, obviated, negated, offset five years of first-rate work in curriculum design and instructional methodology. You see, there wasn't anything wrong with the curriculum. There wasn't anything wrong with the instruction. What was wrong was a faculty member standing in front of learners saying, we've decided to machine gun half you people. In teaching you've got to be doing everything right. And the tragedy is you don't have to say that to communicate it to a group of students. Because you communicate those expectations by everything you do in the classroom. Happy ending to the story-- last year, they no longer said to the students, you will die in here. And the retention rate last fall semester in Chemistry 101 at the college exceeded 95%, with high achievement. There was nothing wrong with those faculty. I said, at the end of the day, why would you say that, George, to your students? Guess what he said? To motivate them. He said, all of us remembered that we worked best when we were challenged and told it was going to be difficult and so forth. And we've always done that to get students serious about their learning. You see, the tragedy is for all those students in his class who had four years of science in high school, four years of mathematics in high school, and SAT scores of 1400 above, he probably indeed facilitated better behavior. But what he really did was convince half of them they couldn't make it in the class. And they left. That leads me into the fourth area, which is really the human area. Because teaching is uniquely a human profession. Teaching is uniquely a human profession. Rousseau wrote two centuries ago-- "In order to teach French to Johnny, it is imperative that the teacher first know Johnny." When I began my freshman work 24 years ago, I walked into a world civilization class as a freshman and had an instructor greet me by name as I walked into his door. And I was immediately bothered. Because I figured my high school reputation had preceded me to college. But it turned out, Louis Brown, the instructor who still teaches, knew everybody's name as we walked into his classroom. He knew everybody's name in all of his classes. And it was obvious to all of us that he had taken the time to find out who we were, to review our records, to go over our recommendations. He knew something about us personally. Louis Brown was not the most exciting teacher I ever had. In fact, he was one of the dullest because he read to us badly from the textbook. But Louis Brown was the kind of teacher who called me the day the little textile mill closed where I was working, and said, I could sure use some help on the weekends. I've got some part-time work here. I could sure use some help. Louis Brown so loved and so cared for his students, that most of us forgave his lousy teaching. And many of us majored in history. It's really important next week, when classes begin, for you to welcome, honestly and genuinely, students into your classroom and your labs and into your shops. Take the time, day one, to learn their names. If you teach no content next week, day one, so be it. Learn the names of the students who will be with you this semester. Find out about them. Have them introduce themselves. Use name tags. Let them introduce one another. But commit yourself to learning the names of the students who will be with you. It will be one of the most powerful things you've ever done as a teacher, if you will do that. People in your class know whether you know them or not. Now, you see what I'm talking about is not so unusual. We've always learned the names of certain students. In fact, last summer I had a course on college teaching, which I teach every summer. I walked into my class. And here, on the front row, was this gorgeous blonde-haired, green-eyed woman. And as I walked in she said, Dr. Roueche? And I said, yes? She said, I have waited for three years to be in this class. She said, I came here from a community college in New York state. And she was majoring in the humanities. And she said, I read some of your books. I've implemented many of your ideas. And I just can't tell you how excited I am about being here. And she opened her briefcase and people about four or five of Roueche's books. And she said, would you autograph my book? I said, you bet. What's your name, see? And I learned her name right away. She was an A student in the course. Now, you see, all of you are sitting there thinking, what a sexist comment. You're zeroing in on the blonde hair and the green eyes. Now, let me tell you what she was doing. She was on the front row. Did you notice this morning that the back row filled up first? Did you notice that all the aisle seats in this auditorium are occupied, just as your classroom will be so occupied come Monday. Your students will sit as far away from you, come Monday, as they possibly can. Because they are not evidencing a lot of commitment to their success in your classroom. And many of them are needing as much distance between you and them because they aren't really sure they'll come back the second day. In fact, some may leave on Monday. She was sitting on the front row. She knew me by name. And she said, I've already read all of your books, friend. I've already implemented most of what you know. And you see, she had already done most of the work required for that particular course. Now we, as teachers, love students who behave that way. Don't we? They make us feel so good about ourselves. And we tend to give them all the attention. We tend to spend a lot of time with them. Learn the names of all the students who sit far away from you on Monday. Go to the back of the room and teach from back there, if that will help. Sam Postlethwait says-- Postlethwait's a great botanist at Purdue-- that simply by shaking hands with students as they walk into the class, they reduce the space between where they normally sit and him. That is, the front seats are more likely to be filled up with students if you take the time to greet them. Now, some people are huggers. They like to hug everybody. Now, you have to be sure that the hugee wishes to be bugged before you engage in that kind of activity. But shaking hands in our society is OK. Nobody's going to think you're funny if you shake hands with people. And you'll find that if you welcome them honestly into your classroom and take the time to learn who they are, you're going to get better behavior. You're going to get better involvement with your students right from the very beginning. The second thing you should do come Monday, is place great priority on student attendance in your class. Never say to a group of students in our kinds of colleges, I don't care whether you come to class or not, or I don't call the role here. If you don't value their attendance, why in the world should they? Most of the great teachers I know say things like, it's imperative that you be here every time, on time. Class begins at 9:00, not at 9:05. And if you miss a class of mine, you owe me an hour. You see, you've got to expect a great deal from human beings, or you will never achieve it. And you need to help students learn early on to make a commitment to be responsible in your class. It also means that you need to be there on time. And you need to begin on time. One other thing I want to share with you in the human domain-- if you will commit yourself, this fall, to picking up a telephone and calling any student who misses your class that day, it won't take you a lot of time. But call them and say, we missed you today. Here's your assignment for the next class period. And I would like to see you in my office at 15 minutes before the next class period to review today's assignment. Two things are accomplished. One-- you're coming across as a human being who honestly is concerned about the learning of one of your students. But two-- you're retasking that student. You're getting that student recommitted to coming back. Colleges with which we've worked who've implemented that very simple little strategy have increased retention from 50% to 75% and 80% within a year. It's powerful. I have a hard time not liking people who like me. I have a very difficult time liking people who do not. And when I think about the teachers in my life who influenced me greatly in this profession, it was those teachers who took a personal interest in John Roueche. They knew my name. They challenged me. They motivated me. They let me know that I was somebody important. And I suspect that is true with every one of you in this room. You really have the power to make a difference, and to help students develop the kind of motivation and the kind of responsibility to excel in your classroom. I started teaching public school when I was 20 years old, in the middle of the school year. I graduated in December, took a job in a little rural school in North Carolina. I bought three Van Heusen shirts, pinstriped shirts, button-down collars, for $10. That's why I remember it so well. And you got your initials monogrammed on your shirt pockets. And my initials are JER. I walked into class that morning, took my jacket off. And this huge country boy walked over. And he says, say, buddy, looks like somebody left the k off your pocket there. [LAUGHTER] That was the high point for the day. I had a student in my nine o'clock World Civilizations class who totally destroyed, obliterated, my nine o'clock class. His name was Kenny Ratsbottom. That was his name, R-A-T-S-B-O-T-T-O-M. And Kenny sat in the middle seat, the second row. And he totally destroyed the nine o'clock class. He was a little kid, about 5' tall, very, very small. He would get down out of the desk and creepy crawl around room, knocking those huge World Civilization text off on that old wooden floor. And then he would pull the hair of the little girls. And they were screaming. And he would hit the little boys on the arm. He would run around the room. And I spent the entire hour retrieving Kenny, and putting him back in his seat, and telling him to behave. And then Kenny would tell me what I could do. Which was never very exciting, by the way. Well, at the end of the hour, I had barely scratched the subject. I had only learned the names of maybe five or six other students, whose names I heard and picked up during all the misbehavior of Kenny. So I walked across the hall to the department Chair's office. Was also the head football coach, Coach Jones. And I said, coach, I've got a tremendous problem in my nine o'clock class. I think I need a little advice and counsel. He said, Roueche, do you have Ratsbottom? I said, yes, sir, I do. He said, well, I'll be darned. How about that? He said, well, let me give you some advice. Well, that's why I went, was to get advice. He said, don't take it personal. He said, he's that way with everybody. He said, he's been a bad kid all of his life. Said, it's nothing against you personally. He said, he's been that way. He said, the whole family's no good. He said, they're all on welfare. He said, the whole family's just a bunch of ne'er-do-wells. And I said, well, coach, what do you do about it? See, I went to find out what to do. He said, well, I'll tell you what I do. He reached down, pulled out his bottom drawer, and a huge tether ball paddle. He says, I whoop him, is what I do. And I said, well, does it help? He said, it don't help Kenny. But I feel so much better. He said that. Well, I went back to my class with not much more insight than when I left. Kenny wasn't in the 10 o'clock class. But I was feeling so badly at 10 o'clock that I didn't do a real neat job of teaching either. I was thinking about Kenny Ratsbottom, and not thinking about this group of students where he wasn't present. Well, by the end of the 10 o'clock, I'm saying, golly, I can't let one student wipe me out. I've got to get some enthusiasm back and got to be a little more dynamic in my teaching. And guess who walked in at 11:00? Kenny came in at 11:00, had ninth grade English, destroyed the class. He jumped out the window three times during the class hour and locked himself in a school bus. The principal came down twice, called me out in the hall and said, you're going to have to get control of the situation. Don't you know nothing about discipline? I didn't know anything about discipline. At noon I went to the principal's office, pulled out the cumulative record folder on brother Kenny Ratsbottom. Kenny had never passed a course in his life. He had been socially promoted all the way through public school. By the way, 40% of all people in our society are so promoted through the public schools. He had never done well on any test. Every teacher-- whoever taught Kenny-- had, in the space available, written awful and horrible and terrible things about him. His first grade teacher had written on his form "Beware of this child!" And underneath she wrote, "He's illegitimate." This was Bible Belt North Carolina, Billy Graham really lived right down the road at Montreat. And I thought, how sad that any adult could do that to a little five-year-old boy, label him as a bastard for the rest of his life. And yet, in that very moment, I realized that teacher had a gift of prophecy. Because Kenny was the worst kid I'd ever seen in my life. Well, at the end of the noon hour, I walked back to my classroom. I had as much cognitive information about Kenny Ratsbottom as any human being can know about a student. I knew the name of his stepfather. I knew the name of his mother. I knew where they worked. I knew the names of all his siblings. I knew every test he'd ever taken, every course he'd ever taken. But I did not know what to do about Kenny Ratsbottom. I had Kenny that afternoon in my two o'clock American History class. And I remember that afternoon, getting into my automobile, thinking Roueche, what in the world are you doing here? It had been, without doubt, the worst day in my life. I did not look forward to Tuesday. And on Friday of my second week, I resigned from public school teaching. Teaching was no fun. One student was absolutely ruining every day of my existence. And I didn't know what to do about it, folks. Well, by the third week, I'm borrowing the coach's tether ball paddles. And I'm applying the paddle to Kenny, like everybody else. And the coach was right. Didn't change Kenny's behavior at all. But I felt a lot better. OK? Two weeks later, I'm at the chalkboard, writing something on the board. And Kenny Ratsbottom stood up in his desk, picked up a huge piece of chalk, reared back, and threw it. Just as I turn from the chalkboard, the chalk hit me right across the brow of my eye. And it was in that precise moment of pain and anger that I decided what to do with Kenny. I decided to kill him, right then. [LAUGHTER] And I mean to tell you, I began throwing kids and desk out of the way. And I finally cornered him in the back of the room. I grabbed him by the shirt collar neck and the seat of his jeans. And I got him over my shoulders, fully intent on throwing him through an open window on this side of the classroom building. Well, of course, all of the other children were loving it. They said, let him go, Mr. Roueche! Throw him! Let's see him go out! So of course, I got to the window and realized this is the living end. I'm totally out of control. My anger has absolutely consumed my behavior. And it was absolutely the worst moment I could ever remember. I still don't know what to do with Kenny. In exasperation, I took him to the back of the room and flung him bodily up on some lockers in the back of the classroom. These were lockers where the children hung their coats and kept their lunches and their books. And I said, now Kenny, you sit there. Turned around, walked to the front of the room, and really, really just felt terrible. Turned around. To my great surprise, utter delight, Kenny Ratsbottom had folded his arms and his legs and was sitting very quietly up on the lockers. And he sat there for the entire hour. And he said not a word. And all the other children kept looking around, wondering when he was going to do his thing, see? First time in all their lives Kenny had ever behaved in class. At 11 o'clock, he came back in. I greeted him at the door. And I said, Kenny, how would you like to sit back up on the lockers? He says, yes, sir. I said, come on. Boy, I took him, put him right back up on the lockers. He was quiet through the 11 o'clock period. And I was teaching. Well, by noon, it was all over school that Kenny was behaving in my class. And the teachers came down to my little office. And they said, what are you doing with brother Ratsbottom? I said, well, what we're doing here-- after reviewing all the research-- I said, well, really what we've done here is put Kenny up on those lockers in the back of the room. Mrs. Upton, who was the botany teachers said, how did you know to do that? I said, I'll tell you later, Mrs. Upton. But it works, and so forth. Well, that afternoon, Kenny sat on the lockers. The next morning, after my nine o'clock class, Mrs. Upton-- who had him in General Botany-- came down. And she motioned me over. She said, would you put Kenny on the lockers in my room? I said, yes, ma'am. Pretty soon, Kenny was on everybody's locker. On Thursday of that week, he brought a little orange crate that he'd made into a stair step to my classroom. He had me for three classes. So he brought his little step so he could get up on the lockers without me. The principal came down to see me the next week. He was the guy who had gone overnight from being the head Driver Ed teacher to Principal, just overnight. Many, many of his critics attributed his success to marrying the superintendent's daughter. I don't know whether that was true. But John [INAUDIBLE] said, John, he said, you must've had great training, the way you've handled Ratsbottom. Well, no I had no training. In fact, I wasn't certified. See? And he said, how do you explain the change in his behavior? Well, I hadn't done much thinking about that. In fact, one of my favorite quotes is from Bernard Shaw, who said, "Most people think twice a year." He said, "I, being above average, think at least once a month." I've long believed that if all of us in teaching thought very much about what we did we'd do things differently. I hadn't thought about it. But still, Kenny's the smallest kid in school. Everybody makes fun of him. All the boys beat him up. All the girls make fun of him. You can imagine all the synonyms that existed for Ratsbottom. And the only chance he ever had to get even was in class. And he did get even in class. And probably what I did was one, separate him physically by about 20 feet of space. And probably most importantly, he was sitting higher than anybody in the classroom. And he loved it. And nobody will ever know for sure why he changed his behavior, but he did. Two weeks later, the supervisor was come into my class. And I decided teaching wasn't so bad and withdrew my resignation. And I also realized she would have to understand why Kenny was on the lockers and so forth. So that morning I made out a list of three questions, three answers, gave them to old Kenny so that I might call on him or do something with him during the hour. And sure enough, during the hour, I'd rehearse this class for about three days. You know? I like people to evaluate my teaching, especially if they let me know when they're coming. They're going to really get a three-ring show. Well, sure enough, halfway through the class, I threw out a question that all of my good students should have known an answer to and they didn't. The supervisor looked at me. And I looked at the supervisor. And finally I remembered Kenny had that question. I said, Kenny, I just asked this question. Do you know the answer to it? He said, no sir. There's no way I could know the answer. I said, Kenny, I think you do know the answer. He said, whoa, wait a minute. He's reaching down. And he said, say it again. I said it again. And he found the question. He read the answer terribly. Nobody in the class laughed. Because it was the first time, again, in their lives, he had ever taken part in class. And of course, I got a better idea. So every day then I gave Kenny three or four questions and the answers. And pretty soon I begin calling on him in class and the like. And a week or two later, Kenny Ratsbottom came to my class at nine o'clock one morning, and taught me most of what I learned about teaching. He said, Mr. Roueche, can I say something to you? I was making out his questions. I said, you certainly may. He said, Mr. Roueche, you don't ever have to give me the answers no more. Kenny Ratsbottom made, earned, deserved, achieved, received three B's in those three courses. And what he taught me was that in teaching it's never a matter of how bright you are or how right you are, or how well you did on the GRE, or how much money you make, or how many books you've written, or how articulate you are. Teaching is infinitely a matter of how able we are, as teachers, to get our students excited and committed to the subject matter we wish to teach them. It's a unique human business. It's really good being with you. I look forward to the rest of the day. And I wish you the best year ever. Thank you. Thank you. [APPLAUSE] That a marvelous kick off? Dr. Jana B. Matthews comes to us from Boulder, Colorado, where she is the director of the Direct Assistance Network for the National Center for Higher Education Management Systems. She has a Doctorate from Harvard University, where her unique area of study was in planning and finance, organizational development, and policy formation, especially in colleges and universities. The program of study included courses at Harvard's Business School, as well as their Graduate School of Education. This combination of business management and educational skills has special interest to many of us in this two-year college setting. The higher education consulting projects that Dr. Matthews has directed in the last five years are extremely diverse. They range from analyzing a new plan of financial aid to college students in Rhode Island, to training faculty and administrators in the use of planning tools and computer models in Indiana, to designing and directing the first faculty and course evaluation, and advising the President on management style and strategies at the Rhode Island School of Design. For two years she was a member of the international consulting firm of Arthur D. Little, Inc, where she worked with National Iranian Radio and Television, the US Office of Education, and the Massachusetts Governor's Task Force on the Open University, among others. Of special interest to those of us at UTC Salt Lake is the topic of her Master's degree, interdisciplinary program to develop supervisory skills in master teachers. Today she will speak to us on colleges and communities, assessing their needs. It's my great pleasure to introduce to you, Dr. Jana Matthews. [APPLAUSE] I'm in the position of wishing that we had a coffee break or some kind of a break. Because this was a marvelous talk. It's almost signing up [INAUDIBLE]. Can I come teach for you? I think it really sets the tone. And I can't think of a more diverse background than Anne introduced that I had, compared to the kind of wonderful personalized discussion that you've just had. I'm really delighted to be here. I'm in the same position that President Randolph is, in understanding what it's like to be west of the Mississippi, since I only came out to Denver in February. And I understand you've recently come from West Virginia. I've been in Massachusetts for about 20 years. And I know pretty much about higher education east of the Mississippi. I'm learning a little bit about it west of the Mississippi. This is my first trip to Salt Lake City. And I came yesterday and did a lot of the regular tourist gawking and going to the temple, and having lunch and dinner at the hotel. And I really have enjoyed it, even though it was a very rainy day yesterday. One of the reasons why I've come early is because I've decided to take some time and spend a little more time getting to know the communities that surround the colleges that I've done some work with. I suppose I felt a great affinity with you, when you were talking about going to school in the '50s. Because of course, I did too, '50s and early '60s. And it's birthday time, folks. And I don't know how you are. But for me, I really do a general assessment, especially when you're crossing those great divides between different decades. So I think parenthetically, in passing, that a couple of the colleges I'm going to be talking about must feel the same thing. Because they're doing needs assessments over their 10th birthdays. I think that's kind of interesting. I'm well aware of the old adage that a consultant is the one who borrows your watch to tell you what time it is. And as Anne Erickson talked about all the consulting I had done, I'm very pleased to have done it. But I'm a little concerned about the little things that must be raising their ugly heads in your mind. Because I don't want you to go away with that kind of an image of consulting, at least, the kind of consulting we do. The Direct Assistance Network at NCHEMS-- and by the way, I think that sounds like a new breakfast cereal. You have Kix. You have NCHEMS, all these jazzy little titles that have come up in higher ed. The program we do is really working closely with organizations and with people in organizations, mostly administrators. At some occasions we also work with faculty. Sometimes that depends on the whim of the president, of course, how much involves the faculty in management. I'm sure you all know that. Anyway, the program I direct is basically concerned with providing consulting services to institutions. And I think that consulting is more than just telling you the obvious, or more than solving your problems for you. We really believe that consulting involves very much of a teaching and a transference of knowledge and skills. So that I hope the discussions that I have with you today, about how colleges assess the needs of their communities, will let you go out of the room thinking that maybe a consultant does borrow your watch. But maybe she borrows your watch to teach you how to tell time. And later you're just amazed at how much you've learned once you've learned to tell time, how much more you know about the world around you, and how much more obvious things become. Colleges and their communities, assessing needs-- Dr. Erickson mentioned that I've been at NCHEMS a short time. And one of the things I'm doing is working with three institutions who are in various stages of assessing their needs. One is just at the beginning. One is in Oklahoma. They think, ah, what we need to do is send out a questionnaire and find out what the problems are in the community and what they need. And then we can respond. A second one is just about to the place where they're beginning to collect data. And the third is in West Virginia. And it's now using the needs-assessment information in planning, in management, and decision making. As I mentioned, it may be just coincidence or it may be symbolic that two of the three are about to have their 10th birthday. And so they've decided to do a little reassessing, a little time to take stock. Community colleges seem to be more interested in assessing needs other than four-year or research-oriented universities, I think for a number of reasons. Obviously, they're the most closely tied of all institutions to their communities. Students come from surrounding areas. They seldom move away from home and live at the campus. They usually commute from home. They return to jobs in the area. Many of the faculty members are professionals in the area who teach as adjunct faculty at community colleges. Community advisory boards often serve almost as governing boards to keep the college closely attuned. Local legislators, at least in Massachusetts, I know they champion the institution as their gifts to the community. And some of them even place their private spies on campus to make sure that information gets fed back at the legislative level about what's going on. And certainly last but not least, community colleges usually receive some or all of their funds from the local area, local funds, tax bases, depending on various states' financing schemes. With all these ties to the community, it's a wonder to me that more colleges haven't really engaged in a formal system of needs assessment. And it's this more formal approach that I'm going to talk about today, and to describe how these other institutions are wending their way through this process. I hope it will be useful to you. Even if you do not decide to engage in a formal needs assessment process, at least you'll have some ideas to think about as you're relating yourself to the community. I jotted down some notes as Dr. [INAUDIBLE] and Dr. Roueche were talking. I'm especially interested in the fable of the animal school, wondering what types of graduates the communities in which that school was placed needed. For instance, supposing you were very busy teaching the animals to climb and swim, which isn't particularly useful if the college is in the middle of the desert. Colleges often do those things. The phrase "community renewal college" is exactly the kind of thing that we're going to be talking about this morning. I think it's very important to think in terms of a symbiotic relationship between the college and the communities in which they are located. And I want to talk some more about that, and how that process both renews the college and renews the community. The assessment of needs is really a fundamental activity of all educational institutions. I don't think anyone will dispute that. The needs assessment is a formal process of identifying and understanding and responding to needs. Whether it's explicit or not, whether you do it formally or informally, you're always making decisions about goals and objectives. Whether to continue a program or service, whether to develop new programs, whether or not to allocate funds to certain programs or certain services, how to select and recruit, identify, reward the people who are teaching in the college, how to schedule and utilize facilities, and what courses to offer. To whom? How? When? What time of the day? At what cost? You have to have some basis for making those decisions. And hopefully one that's tied to a needs-assessment process will help you make better decisions about each of those issues that I've mentioned. Colleges often are engaged in some kind of an informal needs assessment. That is, you sit on boards. And you sit on advisory committees. And you sort of hear what's going on in the community. And you come back. And once in awhile, on an individual basis, you kind of feed in information. But there are some problems with that. Because it isn't very systematic. It doesn't occur often. And that information doesn't get fed back in the decision-making process. People will say, well, you heard that. Or that was something that you picked up. But my experience is different. Therefore, let's discount that. We've often found-- as we've started looking at needs assessment at NCHEMS-- that there are some real problems. There are no real models. And we aren't attempting at all to develop a model. What we're attempting to develop is a design for thinking about needs assessment that you can adapt at your own institution. And people who claim to have models really have very poorly-defined concepts. They think of a needs assess as a survey. We'll go do a survey. We'll assess the needs through a survey. Very seldom is that information then evaluated and fed back in properly to the institution. So what we want to do is to help you think about needs assessment as providing information that's useful in the management and planning of your college, getting that information from existing sources or collecting it, analyzing, reporting those information to the community internally within the college and the external community, and then using it in the decision making and management of your institution. I think this can help overcome some of the shortcomings that some of you maybe now feel, perhaps, you felt it inside or maybe you've mentioned it to other friends that we really need to have a better understanding about what we're doing here and what people out there need. There are really three aspects of needs assessments. First is assessing the needs of learners. And I can't think of anyone who's discussed that any better than this morning. That's really looking at who it is who comes to you. What do they need? What do you do for them, to them, with them that creates a learning process? The second set of a needs assessment-- and I'm obviously not going to talk about that. I couldn't say anything any better than what's been said. And I think you have a very good sense of that. The second kind of a needs assessment is determining who the other providers of education are. And by providers, I mean more than just colleges and universities, other colleges, other schools, other technical institutions. Providers are people or groups or organizations that offer learning activities. And so there are providers in high schools, in organizations, in libraries, at the Y, a whole range of those that you need to think about in terms of not only who is your "competition", but with whom can you collaborate, and who else is doing things that are similar to yours that you can build on? So you think of the providers of education as well. What I'm mostly going to be talking about is really what the community needs are. And of course, defining community is very difficult. Because some people think if you're a faculty member, your community may be all of the other historians in the United States who are studying history from 1800 to 1840. Or the community can be everybody here in the valley. Communities are societal context within which learning activities occurs. Sometimes it defines political boundaries, population densities, economic activities, where natural resources are located. Others refer to personal traits such as this community of women, of sex, age, educational level, marital status, racial/ethnic groups, you can cut communities a variety of different ways. So you may need to think of doing assessments of the needs of these different kinds of communities. Or you may think of the community as a whole, as being those people located in the valley. At any rate, realize that there are a variety kinds of subgroups within the large group called community. Although needs assessment is often thought of only in terms of collecting information, the process of providing meaningful information must involve a lot more than just simply collecting it. And I will very quickly talk about three different subsets of the needs assessment. One is the pre-collection activities, the things you do before you ever go out and start collecting information. Very quickly move through what you really do in terms of collecting and compiling activities, in gathering up information using instruments and so forth. And then the post-collection activities, which is really, I think, one of the most important and most interesting parts of needs assessment. Certainly the most important question to ask as you begin to think about assessing needs is why? Why do you care? What is it that you're trying to look at? Why should an assessment be done at all? Why should your institution become involved in this activity? And let me stop here and talk about the three institutions I am working at. At one institution, the president had recently moved, of all places, from the great government of Texas, to West Virginia. He had worked very hard for three years. He had met with just about every community group. He'd given speeches at rotary. He'd gone to the old folks' home. He'd just done all kinds of things to try to relate the institution to the community. And what he wanted, in effect, was a report card to see whether or not he'd succeeded. And he decided on a very elaborate kind of needs assessment. He wanted to do one assessment of John Q. Citizen, every 20th name in the phone book, one assessment of people who lived in old folks' home, a retirement home. So we did a special survey of them. We interviewed every guidance counselor that was a feeder into that school. We had questionnaires designed and got 85% participation of high school seniors who were graduating. We sent to a random sample of community agency heads in the area, and to employers in the area. I mean, this was a very complicated survey of different segments of the community, to get their different perceptions. Some were overlapping questions. Some were separate questions. He found that there were still problems in terms of what the institution ought to be doing. But there wasn't any question that they felt that institution was a real part of the community, a real contribution. The president had made an impact. They all knew where it was. They knew what it was about. And he felt that's one of the things that he could now set aside and get onto another agenda, spend his time doing some of the other things such as relating to legislators and people outside the community that were going to be necessary. They also found, by the way, parenthetically, that there was enormous spin off. Their applications the next fall were up. They could not believe how many more seniors had applied. There were complimentary editorials in the paper. Guidance counselors had a much different view of the institution. They had an easier time placing students. So that the effect on the community, that the college had been interested enough to come out and try to assess what their needs were and to see whether or not the college was meeting, and see where the nexus was there, had a very positive impact in improving the image of the college even more. So he was very, very pleased with that. Now, another college, which is in Arizona, has recently faced a bond issue. For 10 years they've been in mobile classrooms. I've practiced saying that word. Not trailers, mobile classrooms they have been in. And recently they had a bond issue to build permanent buildings, which was defeated. They were absolutely crushed. But what they don't know is whether or not it was defeated because the college isn't meeting the needs of the community, or whether or not the community simply wasn't willing to absorb any more taxes. So they feel that it's important not only to assess what the community thinks of them so that they can hopefully shout down the naysayers who say, oh, you're not doing what you're supposed to be doing. But it's also to use this as a vehicle for educating the community about what they are doing. Because they're very worried that people just simply don't know. So they are trying to design a needs-assessment process which will tell people as much about the community as it will help the college understand what the needs of the community itself are. A third college, which is just beginning, has been trying to change its image for 10 years. It's a former military academy. I never knew, till I came west, that there are state-supported military academies in states' histories. That's kind of interesting. They changed to a community college about 10 years ago. And they just aren't at all sure that the community has made the switch. And this community is located in outskirts of an urban area that's rapidly growing. So new people who were coming in do understand a little bit about the changed image. But the folks who've been there for a while, the real hardcore of the townies, they just don't feel that they've gotten the message across to them. So they are really struggling with who in the community do we want to reach? And what is it that we want to look at? And then later, who is it that we collect information from? And how are we going to use this information in changing both our public image, and in changing the decisions made at the college about courses and programs so we can meet these new community needs. So those are just three examples of different goals, rather specific goals that these three institutions have. And I'm sure the institutions represented today would probably have different agendas. I guess I would encourage you to try to be as specific as you can about what the purpose of the needs assessment would be. And there's usually some kind of a triggering event that gets people to thinking that maybe this is useful. Sometimes it's a decrease in enrollments. Sometimes it's a decrease in funding. Sometimes it's a series of very negative editorials that have come out. Sometimes it's town-gown problems. Whatever it is, this triggering event gets people to think, probably we need to do a little better careful assessment about the community in which we're situated. And to paraphrase Dr. Roueche, you can't really teach Johnny to teach unless you know more about Johnny. Well, it's very difficult to serve the needs of the community if you don't know a little bit more about the community and you aren't systematically going about assessing what its needs are. We've done some study at NCHEMS, looking at the literature and interviewing people who've done needs assessment. And as you go through that, you see that there are maybe 10 major goals, reasons for people doing needs assessments. Now let me just run through these very rapidly. Because I've already suggested some. Certainly one is to identify problems-- problems at the campus, problems in the town's perception of the campus that you just may not be aware of when you're working there every single day, or planning and developing new activities. In many cases, presidents or administrators at an institution, or even faculty want to get some kind of ammunition for what they are doing, or some justification for what they have already done. See, it's working. Everybody thinks it's wonderful. Or I told you we should have that business development program. And here's the data to prove it. Certainly two other major reasons I've alluded to are fostering support in involving the public in what's going on at the campus. And in assessing the perceptions and the image of the institution that the community holds of it. Another is simply to help you in setting your goals and priorities. You have a limited pot of money. That seems to be true in Utah, as well as other states. Which new programs are you going to mount? Which current programs need strengthening? Which ones really need updating? How are you going to allot your resources? And who is going to be moving up the top in terms of priorities, as you look at the multiple goals that you have? Some institutions, as I've said, need to increase the size of student body, or at least find out what the decreases are due to. And in some cases, they simply need to satisfy a mandate from someone outside. There's a coordinating council that says, you've got to understand your community. By the way, we aren't going to approve any more programs until you prove to us that the community needs that particular program. Or maybe an accrediting body is coming in a couple of years and you need to work on your self assessment. So that the external reason sometimes motivates you as properly as the internal one. Anyway, obviously there are multiple goals for a needs assessment. And depending on what your goals are, depending on the outcomes of the needs assessment as well, it's important to be very aware of that purpose, as I've said before. Because that's related to the audience, the people that you collect information from, the focus, the sources of the information, and how the information will then be used. So really, I can't over stress how important it is to think through those things ahead of time. Certainly the audience is number 10 here, under the goals that I've alluded to. For whom is this needs assessment being done? This question really relates as much to how you structure it as well as how you then report out the results. If this is being done for a general community group, then you're going to want to have a large broad base of community response that you can call upon. And you're probably going to want to report it in newspaper articles and in layman's language. If this needs assessment is being done for a legislative analyst or for the Academic Affairs person at the office, then you may need to have a little better sampling techniques, a little finer way that you use your data, a little more care paid and attention to the methodology that you use, and so forth. So the audience that's going to be looking at these responses is pretty important. I've mentioned one institution that decided to query five different groups of people. They felt that they had to get a finer grain of how the needs were in these various groups, as opposed to just one whole community response. The other institutions, on the other hand, feel it's more important to get a sense of what John Q. Citizen thinks of them, since it's really John Q. Citizen who's probably paying taxes and enrolling in classes. So there are a variety of ways of looking at who the audience is, and then who you should get information from in order to satisfy that audience. I think I mentioned earlier, it's a very important, also, for you to consider what needs. The obvious question is always the first one that you think about. You can collect information on almost any kind of needs. You would end up having a questionnaire that's very chock full of questions. But the question is, does it really provide information that you want to have in terms of assessing particular kinds of needs that your institution can respond to? Of course the purpose of the institution is going to determine what specific needs need to be addressed. The needs of the community can be seen as a sum of the needs of the learner. But if you take a real systemic approach, you'd say, that's just one. In the sum of different learners, does it really amount to the whole? You really need to take a look at the learners, the providers, the employers, the community agency folks. You have a large group of people that are involved here that you really need to take in account when you're looking at the kinds of needs that you're assessing. I think it's also important to think about the needs of the particular institution that's performing the assessment. This means you have a clear understanding of your institution-- what its goals and purposes are, its potential for service, it's facilities, it's finances, it's human and informational resources. Whether or not it's made explicit, the question of institutional needs is really at the heart of a needs assessment as well. Because if an institution needs to increase its student body in order to be healthy, financially healthy or academically healthy, that's going to reflect in the kind of needs assessment and the priorities that it has in its goals for doing a needs assessment. If an institution has facilities which aren't really being used efficiently, or which people in the community are not really taking advantage of, then it's going to want to think about that and crank it into the needs assessment. If it has faculty members who are underutilized or if it has mandates-- as I've mentioned-- from someone else to do these needs assessments, if it's undergoing an administrative or a philosophical crisis-- all these kinds of things are going to color or need to be factored into the particular set of questions that you ask, which will give you information about how your institution can meet their needs. I'd like to run down just a brief set of kinds of information that'll probably be useful for you to think about collecting from the people that you're sending-- or getting a needs assessment from. I was going to say, sending a questionnaire. Already I'm programmed to thinking of surveys here. First of all, you want to know something about who responds, a little bit about their own personal and demographic characteristics. You not only want to know that just in terms of the survey, but you also want to know whether or not the survey you got back represents the region which you're surveying. So it's important to get some of those what I call personal demographic characteristics. You want to know why they come to college, for learning activities or services. And you may want to know why they don't come to college if they don't. You want to know a little bit about their assessment of the content and substance of what is taught in courses. And one of the colleges says, yeah, I not only want to know about that. But I want to know how they know about the substance. Do they know from firsthand experience? Or do they know from secondhand impressions from someone else? Now, what is the source of information? What is the general perception held? Is it based on what people know by being they themselves, or by that aura that emanates from the college? What is their assessment of the delivery mechanisms and the methods of teaching in the courses? You might want to find out if they'd be happier coming for shorter-term courses over a longer period of time, or concentrated courses in blocks of time. You may want to find out if they'd be happier taking most of their courses from 4:00 to 10:00 at night, as opposed to 8:00 to 4:00. The delivery, of course, is whether they want to come to the campus, or whether they want courses to be held at their employers, or the local Y, or the high schools, or 1,000 other places where you can hold college courses off campus. Whether they want to come and sit in lectures at a class, where they want to take correspondence, have it on the television, have it on the radio, have short-term seminars, have weekend workshops, whole package, called the delivery in how you get the information to them and involve them in a learning experience is important to reassess. We always assume that the students want to come from 8:00 to 4:00 and take hour-long classes with 10-minute breaks in between. That's not usually true for colleges where the age of the student is 26, 29 years old and rising. You'll certainly want to know something about their financial assistance, which prohibits or encourages them to participate in learning activities. Are your courses priced too high? Actually, could they be priced higher, which would give you more money than to use in scholarships for those who can afford it? You get some idea about their feeling about the price responsiveness to courses. What is their perception about the size and appropriateness of your physical facilities? Just looking around this beautiful campus, I can't imagine anyone who wouldn't line up at the gates to come in. I've been to a lot of campuses though, where you just take one look at those depressing facilities, and you can understand why people don't want to come and aren't breaking down the gates. On the other hand, I certainly don't want to imply that good education and exciting learning experiences can't take place in the most broken down and prison facilities, that were talked about earlier this morning. So it's not that activities can't take place inside. But it's that physical facilities often do affect the perceptions of the community. You'll want to know a little bit about their perception of the people who are affiliated with the institution. What do they think about those that they've come in contact with? How about fellow students? Do they have an impression that the only people that go to this place are those who really can't make it at the University? Or those who are tied to mama's apron strings and don't want to leave home? Or those who think it's easy to come here because you can get a credential which you need for your job, but you don't have to work very hard. And you can take 15 hours and still work 30 hours a week, and you can manage? What do they think about the staff and the faculty? Are they turned on or turned off when they walk in here? Are there things about the behavior, out in the community, that really affect how people perceive those that represent the institution? What about their available time for taking courses and their preferred time? I've talked, certainly, about their preferred time. You also need to get a sense of their available time. You know, most of the people in the community, and indeed, the low unemployment rate here suggests that everybody's working, if they really have time for taking courses on the weekends, evenings, late afternoons, you need to think about that when you're presenting your courses for them to take. Then you need, probably, to find out also a little bit about effectiveness of various media for transmitting information to them. Is the most effective way to get to students through newspaper articles, through circulars, through catalogs, through flyers, through speeches in the community, through ads in the paper? How do we get to those folks out there? How do we get the information? One institution that was spending quite a bit of money advertising on television did the assessment and found out that there were two mountains that were blocking reception for 90% of the people. They certainly did change their media budgets very rapidly after that piece of information. So you need to find out which ones are more effective, and then hopefully, which ones are most cost effective. And then last but not least, I think you'd want to know something about their use of the various types of what I would call support services and related activities at the institution. Do people know that there's a placement service that they in the community can use? Or can they use that? Should they be able to use it? Do they know that there are testing and counseling services available to them, as citizens in the community? Do they know there's a speaker's bureau? Do they know you have lectures? Do they know they can come use your facilities? Do they have any idea what it is that you can provide to them in the community, in the way of serving their needs and having them have some sense that you are really a part of them and an integral part of the community, and without you there would be a tremendous loss? So those are generic kinds of information that you might want to think about if you are seriously considering either an informal or formal needs assessment. There are, of course, two sources of information for a needs assessment. The primary source, of course, is people. What do people think of you? What are you like? People may be learners, past, present, or potentials, or other providers, members of different groups in the community agencies, official representatives of groups' agencies, employers, members of a policy-making body in the community. There are various sources of people. And one president, for instance, said to me, you know, I could just go to the Rotary Club. The 136 people who belong to that are the movers and shakers in this community. That'd be a very inexpensive needs assessment. But I'm not going to go that route. Because I think it's important for everybody in the community to understand that we're reaching out to them. It's not just information I'm after. It's the feeling. It's the change of perception, and how we are reaching to the people in the community, that I want to get across. And certainly, then there are the existing sources. The primary sources being people. The other existing sources being the books and records and statistical tables and reports and all those other things that you can look at to get some sense of what the statistically-identified needs are in your community. You can begin to see what the economic needs are, what industries are moving in, what kinds of jobs are going to be needed at what level. And that can be based on your institutional records or studies reported in literature or census data, or Bureau of Labor Statistics, your community planning surveys, other community agencies' surveys, information systems of your state licensing agencies, state and regional agencies. I mean, there's just so much of a mass of data out there, that you sure don't need to go out and collect that. You'd need to do a very careful compilation of what's available and pertinent to your institution. So that'll give you some rational data, let's call it. But the perceptual data, you'll probably need to get from the people themselves. The issue of collecting and compiling the information-- which all this, by the way, was the pre-collection kinds of activities and things to think about in and work through. Once you've really decided that you're going to systematically try to collect information from people or from sources, there are varieties of techniques. I mean, I could give you a list as long as my arm that I have written here that I won't bother to go through. But let me just mention the five main ones that are used. The first, really, are surveys and polls. And I guess I pointed out earlier, my tendency to think and other institutions' tendency to think of surveys as the way to do a needs assessment. That's probably because it's been done that way so often. But that's just one of at least five you could choose. These methods certainly are efficient in terms of determining the needs of a small homogeneous target group, where uniformity allows you to extrapolate from a small sample, or a large heterogeneous target group, where a careful sampling can still give you reliable projections. But the value of that kind of a research really depends on the skills with which you do it. Or you can invest time and money and really have it be an enormous waste. One institution is wanting very badly to survey everyone. And yet, there are 26,000 people in their community. You think of 26,000 labels stuck on envelopes, 26,000 times 2 stamps. 26,000 times 2 stamps of envelopes. Your mind just boggles at the thought of doing a needs assessment of every individual that might be involved. So they're now working through other alternative strategies for touching and reaching those people, and getting them in a position that they can know about the college and perhaps respond without receiving a piece of paper in the mail that'll be a survey that they fill out and send back. So the whole issue of surveying institutions, while it's done most frequently, is often fraught with peril. And you really need to be careful or you'll get back a bunch of mumbo jumbo. And as they say, garbage in, garbage out. Another kind of assessment that's used, I would say, most frequently by colleges is what we call intelligence systems. And that's where you really improve your organization's intelligence-gathering activities. We all know about that, in the college makes spot checks of its constituencies. It places people on appropriate boards in the community. It has people serving on action communities. And that's great. We really want a college, ideally, to know as much about what the needs are as the weatherman is supposed to know about the weather. Or perhaps I should say, do a better job than the weatherman does about the weather. OK, so you serve on joint boards and councils and committees and so forth. And this brings the institution into direct contact with leaders in the community. It keeps the name of the institution before these leaders. It allows the institution to hear what's going on and presumably anticipate areas that it might respond to. It gives the institution insight into resources that other organizations might have, in areas where they can collaborate or where they can directly meat employers' needs. It helps the institution learn about economic and social and recreational and political and educational trends in the community, all of which they ought to know about. The problem has been the people who sit on those councils representing a college very seldom feed that information back into the institution. And that has been where the real slip up has been. I mean, you represent the institution at times. As a matter of fact, you even forget you represent the institution. All of us like to take pride in thinking that we're here because people value our particular expertise. That's true. But at the same time, we are always representing the institution. Then the transfer does not take back into the institution. For instance, a person who sits on the Arts and Humanities Council just doesn't report back to the college ways in which the college really could provide facilities for exhibits or structure art-appreciation programs in conjunction with other Arts Council members or other institutions, or how to get that marvelous integration of effort. So it's important, if you're going to be using intelligence systems, to formalize the system. Make sure that you do place people strategically on those different committees and councils. You have to give a lot more thought about who serves where, in what capacity, how they are representing the institution. And then what are the formal mechanisms by which that information comes back in and gets fed into the institutional decision making? Third kind of a way of collecting and compiling information has to do with hearings. Lots of public meetings that are held. And I've known one institution in Massachusetts that really made an effort to go back. Of course, New England, with its own New England meeting house and town-hall mentality, probably is more comfortable doing that than other regions of the country. But meetings might be held to assess, for instance, the needs of a smaller community. For instance, chapters of professional associations, or meetings with those who are in retirement homes, or meetings with, let's say, guidance counselors at their annual meetings. So you really have an opportunity for those people to be heard and to tell you-- hopefully in a non-threatening atmosphere-- what it is that they wish you were doing better or differently. The fourth method is the Delphi Technique. And that's a procedure for developing consensus about what is going to be happening. And the last two are more compiling than collecting activities. The first round is unstructured. You pick a group of people who are real community leaders. And you send out statements to them, or you solicit statements from them about what the future's going to be like. And then you tabulate those and send them out so everybody can see. And you have an idea, so that you begin to narrow down and have general agreement on four, five, or six or eight issues. This certainly has the advantage of using the expertise of scattered groups of experts. But one of the problems is, of course, that you don't develop the kind of commitment to carry through on what it is that comes out of them. If you have a small group of people involved, then it's very hard to get lots of people to feel that that process is going to touch them. And that they ought to be paying attention to it. The fifth is trend-projection techniques. And these are the kinds of great computer forecasts of complexity like Forrester's great World Dynamics model and all those kinds of things. And we certainly know about those. State planning committees and councils, and sometimes even state coordinating boards-- and I can say that, having worked at one-- have a tendency to want to run things through models and get things out the other end. We know that there are going to be so many fewer babies born and so many fewer people going to college and so many fewer students, and so much more in the energy area. And you get all these wonderful trend analyzes, which are important to crank in to your thinking. You certainly cannot determine a needs assessment. But it's important to factor into that. The question then comes well, once you start these needs assessments, how often should you keep collecting the information? And of course, that is the problem. Because yesterday's information is out of date for today. And again, one of my problems with trend projections is that we just cannot predict what's going to happen tomorrow on the base of yesterday. And that became very clear to colleges in the '70s, as they all thought that life of the '60s was going to continue. So the large-scale surveys, you certainly can't repeat frequently because of the expenses associated with it. However, some methods of continuous, ongoing, smaller surveying of target groups and the informal needs assessment, collection through intelligence systems and all that, can be formalized and can be done in an ongoing basis. The third kind of activities associated with this are obviously the post-collection activities. And that is in deciding how the information is going to, first of all, be analyzed. And there again, you keep in mind your audience. If you're doing a needs assessment of the community and you're going to feedback that information to the community, then you aren't going to want to have a lot of mumbo jumbo about regressions and all kinds of fancy statistical methods. On the other hand, you are going to want to be able to have some useful correlations between two or three different factors that you can point out to them. And secondly, it's very important that whoever analyzes the stuff gets at the essential questions that you were asking. For instance, if the assessment is really an aid in deciding whether or not to offer beginning Spanish, you sure as heck better have gotten that information, not have your analyst go off these tangents about oh, we need more intermediate Spanish, or we need advanced physics, or we need more speakers bureaus. So make sure you gather out the information that you really need. And don't let your analyst run off and run off at the mouth and run off at the brain, as I call it, in following all these other marvelous permutations of what it is that the data really is saying to us. The analysis should also be geared toward implementation. Let's analyze the data in a way that you can use it. How is this going to be used in your decision making? That is critically important. And therefore, when you're structuring this kind of a process, you need to have the decision makers involved so that they're asking the questions, and they're beginning to see what information there is. And then they will continue to ask for it and use it in their reality-based decisions. I guess the last thing I want to talk about in the post-collection activities is the reporting to the external constituents. I think that this should not simply begin after the analysis is complete. If you're going to really use the needs assessment to its fullest, you'll want to be talking to people in the community well before they ever receive any instrument or telephone call, or get invited to a hearing. Or you attend their association to ask for their opinions. News releases regarding the upcoming survey can notify the community that the institution is interested in finding out more about peoples' interests. And that presents the image of responsiveness that we all want to get across about our institutions. This release will likely reach a larger audience than the survey will itself. And in fact, it breaks ground for the information collectors, or the survey instruments that then come. And hopefully-- we always hope. We never can tell in cause-and-effect relationships. But hopefully it reduces the number of those who either refuse or just aren't interested in responding. So also, as you are going along, it's very useful to talk to the newspaper editor and find out if you can have periodic progress reports about how it's going. You may end up wanting to present a final report or a series of articles based on the final report. These reports can be technical or nontechnical. They may be descriptive for judgmental or recommending. You can use them for a variety of purposes. You then feed in that information internally in your policy making and certainly, when you're going to "justify" your request to external boards, whether they be governing, coordinating, accrediting, legislative, whomever. I could easily run down and in this afternoon we'll be talking about different reporting mechanisms. Obviously the audience that you have will determine the kind of report that you give. You wouldn't give a very technical report to a lay audience. Nor would you give a very superficial top-of-the-recommendations report to the policymakers who are very interested in the specifics about what you're doing. So you do need to match the report with the audience who will be receiving it. The single-most important shortcoming of most needs assessment lies-- as I've mentioned before-- in the use to which the information is or is not put. It's awfully difficult for people to really tell how it's going to be used. And I don't want to suggest that it will be easy. If you decide not to offer a program, was it on the basis of information that you collected which suggested that that program wasn't really useful? Or was it because funds were really cut and that was a program that hadn't yet begun, so that it was an easy one to cut out? If you had already decided to implement a program and the needs assessment comes in and says, yes indeed, that's something that we desperately need, there certainly isn't any cause-and-effect relationship there. So it's very difficult to find out what the indicators are that'll say, yes, I am using this information. It has made a difference. The needs assessment was really worth it. And of course, this ties in then, with any kind of cost/benefit analysis that you do. How can you tell whether or not the costs of sending out a survey, of mailing, of time, of all the people whose time to respond, of taking the time to write the reports and so forth, is really worth it? Has it changed decision making at your institution? You can sure look at the tally of what the postage costs were in the number of hours that were spent, and the amount of printing and paper and envelopes used. But then when you think about what the benefits might be, I think that there are more benefits than it would be ever possible for us to cost out. Not the least of which is the group of people who get together, thinking about the needs assessment, the kind of team work that's built up there, when they are focusing on an issue of substance and importance to the college, the benefits in terms of relationships with the community, who has a sense you are indeed reaching out and interested in what's going on and what they need, the benefits to you in terms of public relations with your larger bodies-- shall I call them-- coordinating boards, governing boards, legislative groups, governor's council. You really are attempting to meet the needs with of the public funds and the public trusts that you are carrying. I mentioned earlier, the kinds of spin offs that other presidents have found. More students seem to be interested and their enrollments are up. There's a new awareness about the college. The local legislator was more than active in pushing through extra money for one particular institution. They found that employers had a changed attitude about students. And there was much more of an effort of the personnel and the training folks to come to the college, and to tell them what the problems were with courses that they were offering, the kinds of things we've talked about earlier this morning. What is it that was really being done at the college that did or didn't have any impact on what the student needed to know once he was out in a job? So they had a much better relationship there between the employers and the college administrators and the faculty. Agency heads in the area begin thinking about the college as a place to where they would send their clients and their own professional people and their own staffs for training, for other kinds of skills development. And the guidance counselors in the area had a complete turnabout face in terms of how they perceived the institution and how they presented it to the students in their high schools. So that the benefits of doing this kind of a study-- while I certainly don't want to suggest that they are without cost-- I think in most cases, outweigh the costs considerably. I guess what I've tried to say this morning is that colleges and their communities have a very interdependent relationship. Colleges have no hesitation about telling the communities what their needs are. We need more money, more buildings, more facilities, more faculty, more services, more everything. And I hope that you are just as interested in finding out what your communities need themselves, and then trying to provide for and to meet those needs in a rather systematic process. And I think in doing so you'll have a wonderful opportunity to grow within the institution, and to renew both your institution and the communities in which you are placed. Thank you. [APPLAUSE] We wish to take this opportunity to sincerely thank Dr. Roueche and Dr. Matthews for those excellent presentations. [APPLAUSE] We are just a wee bit ahead of schedule. And so we probably will have lunch at 12:00 instead of at 12:30. We're checking on this momentarily. And the luncheon will be at the College Center, the building just to my left, your right, the large building, where we have had lunch before. The price is $4.50. You can pay this as you go through the buffet line. And we really wish to encourage all of you to attend that luncheon. We will make our awards presentation to the teachers of the year at that meeting. And we will also have a panel discussion on Dr. Roueche's presentation this morning, which should be very informative. And he will participate in the panel discussion. I had lunch last week with the President of the University of Oklahoma. And I think the story that he told might relate to remediation. I'm not quite sure. But someone made inquiry at the table as to what they did to consistently have such a fine football team at the University of Oklahoma. And he said, well, we really recruit the very best athletes that we can find. And he said, first of all, we have a screening test. We screen these athletes very carefully before we admit them into our program. He said, the test goes something like this-- the first question asked is Old McDonald had a-- and then there's a blank. And the student is supposed to fill in that blank in terms of what that word is. So he said, there were a couple of football players that we just recruited this last year. And we asked that question. And the one turned to the other and said, now gee, what is that word? Old McDonald had a-- what is the word? And his colleague nudged him and said, oh you dummy, that's farm. And he said, oh good. He said, now, how do you spell that word? And he thought for a minute, and he said, E-I-E-I-O. Do we have any word yet, Jim? I think we'll probably proceed to the College Center, assuming that we're going to have lunch at 12 o'clock. [INAUDIBLE] Yes? Did someone have-- [INAUDIBLE] Oh, I meant to make mention of that. Dr. Roueche must leave and catch a four o'clock flight. So what we plan to do is as soon as the luncheon is over, we'll return to the auditorium here. Dr. Roueche will have the first session. And we will not have concurrent sessions. He will have the first hour. And then Dr. Matthews will have the last hour. And we'll all meet together right here. Thank you. prospectus example for dissertation Baruch College, Gramercy Park.